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Five of the best Film Composers in Hollywood

Source: saywhydoi.com

Film music is one of those things that a lot of people don't really pay attention to, but it can really help to make the difference between an emotionally flat movie, and one which causes all sorts of emotions to bubble up within you.

Whether you are a newbie to the wonderful world of film music, or a vetran, I hope you'll enjoy perusing this list of my top five film composers.

Alan Silvestri

New York-born, Alan Silvestri (b 1950) has an impressive filmography spanning from 1972 to the present day, and is behind memorable tracks like in the movies: Back to the Future (1985, 1989, 1990), Forrest Gump (1994), Contact (1997), Cast Away (2000), The Polar Express (2004), Van Helsing (2004), Beowulf (2007), Disney's A Christmas Carol (2009), amongst many others.

His 1984 project with director Robert Zemeckis on Romancing the Stone was his first big break, quickly followed by his legendery role in helping to make Back to the Future the classic that it is.

I think it is no coincidence that Silvestri was part of so many great movies, notably Back to the Future, Forrest Gump and Cast Away. I really do think he is a big part of what made them great.

His efforts have been justly recognised in the Academy Awards, Golden Globes and Grammy Awards for his music in Forrest Gump and Polar Express.

Film Music Masterworks - O.S.T.

Film Music Masterworks - O.S.T.

Amazon Price: $6.00

List Price: $9.98

Film Music Masterworks By Alan Silvestri

Film Music Masterworks By Alan Silvestri

Amazon Price: $9.49

Forrest Gump

Forrest Gump

Amazon Price: $3.97

List Price: $7.98

Forrest Gump - Original Motion Picture Score

Forrest Gump - Original Motion Picture Score

Amazon Price: $9.99

Hans Zimmer

Hans Zimmer (b 1957) has been gracing our ears since 1982, with his first movie gig for the film "Moonlighting". This German genius has since been a part of well over 100 films including Oscar-nominated Rain Man (1988), Driving Miss Daisy (1989), Green Card (1990), Thelma & Louise (1991), The Lion King (1994), As Good as it Gets (1997), Pearl Harbor (2001), The Last Samuri (2003), and perhaps most famously Gladiator (2000) and Pirates of the Caribbean (2006, 2007). Most recently he made the music for the brilliant movie, Inception (2010) and is currently working on tracks for the continuing Dark Knight series amongst others. He is even taking his first ever venture into the world of Bollywood, helping make the music for the film Ra.One which is to be released in 2011.

German-born Zimmer first started his musical career by playing with keyboards and synthesizers, and his first rise to mini-fame was in his early 20s when he played with the band "The Buggles". Very soon after, he began his venture into the world of film music - and the rest is history!

Zimmer's beautiful pieces have been recognized in many awards ceremonies over the decades, amongst which he has received 8 Academy Awards, 9 Golden Globes, 7 Grammy awards, 4 BAFTAs and 1 Emmy. A great achiever indeed!

Film Music Of Hans Zimmer

Film Music Of Hans Zimmer

Amazon Price: $17.98

Inception (Music From The Motion Picture)

Inception (Music From The Motion Picture)

Amazon Price: $6.99

Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End

Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End

Amazon Price: $9.49

Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2

Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2

Amazon Price: $9.49

John Williams

New York-born, John Williams (b 1932), son of a jazz drummer, is truly one of cinema's legends, helping to make the magic in classics like E.T, Indiana Jones, Home Alone, Star Wars Jurrasic Park, and the Harry Potter films. He often works together with Steven Speilberg and has in fact composed music for almost every single film directed by Speilberg, bar a mere handful. Although it's hard to give a favourite, I would say that his lesser known soundtrack for the movie Hook is my personal John Williams favourite.

Williams is wonderfully skilled and trumps Zimmer with his long list of awards, amongst which are 21 Grammys! Although to be fair, he has been around for longer..

He is currently working on music for The Adventures of Tintin and War Horse, to be released in 2011.

John Williams - Greatest Hits 1969-1999

John Williams - Greatest Hits 1969-1999

Amazon Price: $16.99

Film Music Masterworks Of John Williams

Film Music Masterworks Of John Williams

Amazon Price: $9.49

John Williams Conducts John Williams

John Williams Conducts John Williams

Amazon Price: $9.99

John Williams 40 Years Of Film Music

John Williams 40 Years Of Film Music

Amazon Price: $39.49

Williams on Williams (Music from the Films of Steven Spielberg)

Williams on Williams (Music from the Films of Steven Spielberg)

Amazon Price: $9.99

James Newton Howard

LA-born James Newton Howard (b 1951), like many of these great film composers, has over 100 projects to his name, including some absolutely thrilling tracks from movies like The Prince of Tides (1991), Water World (1995), and perhaps most famously he teemed with director M. Night Shyamalan in some of his films like Signs (2002), The Village (2004), and Lady in the Water (2006). One of my personal favourite scores by James Newton Howard is his work for King Kong (2005) and Blood Diamond (2006).

He is currently working on several new film scores, including The Dark Knight Rises, together with Hans Zimmer, which will be released in 2012.

Fun fact about Howard: In his younger years Howard toured with Elton John as his keyboardist.

James Newton Howard & friends

James Newton Howard & friends

Amazon Price: $8.91

King Kong

King Kong

Amazon Price: $11.49

The Village

The Village

Amazon Price: $9.49

Greatest Film Composers Vol. 12 - The Music of James Newton Howard

Greatest Film Composers Vol. 12 - The Music of James Newton Howard

Amazon Price: $7.99

James Horner

No Top 5 List of great film composers would be complete without James Horner (b 1953).

Two of the movies that Horner is perhaps the most famous for are Titanic and Avatar, since these are two epically high grossing films. My personal favourite soundtracks by Horner are the ones to Legends of the Fall, Willow, The Rocketeer and A Beautiful Mind. Pure beauty.

Film Music Masterworks Of James Horner

Film Music Masterworks Of James Horner

Amazon Price: $9.90

Avatar Music From The Motion Picture Music Composed And Conducted By James Horner [+digital booklet]

Avatar Music From The Motion Picture Music Composed And Conducted By James Horner [+digital booklet]

Amazon Price: $9.49

Legends Of The Fall Original Motion Picture Soundtrack

Legends Of The Fall Original Motion Picture Soundtrack

Amazon Price: $9.99

Other fantastic film composers aside from these top 5

Other film composers of note who would fit into a top 20 list include:

Rachel Portman

Randy Newman

Danny Elfman

Alexandre Desplat

Harry Gregson-Williams

Howard Shore

Jerry Goldsmith

John Debney

John Powell

Klaus Badelt

Joe Hisaishi

Philip Glass

Thomas Newman

Zbigniew Preisner

Michael Nyman

David Arnold

If you're a fan of film music be sure to check them out! They are all phenomenal in their own ways.

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agvulpes 2 years ago from Australia Level 2 Commenter

Great list of composers. Although some names that don't come readily to mind!

I believe that only a few days ago John Williams passed away. This is a sad loss for all movie lovers :-(

Maxique 18 months ago

How adout Danny Elfman?

brittnay 17 months ago

Those were the exact ones i wouldve put in the top 5! Almost had a heart attack though when i read Agvulpes comment, that is, until i realized John Williams is still alive and kickin lol

Arren123 profile image

Arren123 16 months ago from UK

Super hub, without film music, film would feel very different indeed, voted up and awesome :)

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Best Film Composers of New Hollywood

by pookpooi created 3 months ago | last updated - 3 months ago

Only consider composers that have remarkable scores from 1985 - 2012, update once a year.

Showing all 33 People Sort by:

View:

Image of John Williams

1.

John Williams

Music Department, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

As one of the best known, awarded, and financially successful composers in US history, John Williams is as easy to recall as John Philip Sousa, Aaron Copland or Leonard Bernstein, illustrating why he is "America's composer" time and again. With a massive list of awards that includes over 41 Oscar nominations (five wins)...

Image of Hans Zimmer

2.

Hans Zimmer

Music Department, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood's most innovative musical talents, having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group's single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV...

Image of James Horner

3.

James Horner

Music Department, Titanic

James Horner began studying piano at the age of five, and trained at the Royal College of Music in London, England, before moving to California in the 1970s. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music at USC, he would go on to earn his master's degree at UCLA and teach music theory there. He later completed his Ph.D...

Image of Alexandre Desplat

4.

Alexandre Desplat

Composer, The King's Speech

Image of Howard Shore

5.

Howard Shore

Music Department, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

Image of Thomas Newman

6.

Thomas Newman

Music Department, WALL·E

Image of Ennio Morricone

7.

Ennio Morricone

Composer, The Untouchables

A classmate of director Sergio Leone with whom he would form one of the great director/composer partnerships (right up there with Eisenstein & Prokofiev, Hitchcock & Herrmann, Fellini & Rota), Ennio Morricone studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory, where he specialized in trumpet. His first film scores were relatively undistinguished...

Image of Alan Menken

8.

Alan Menken

Music Department, Aladdin

Image of Maurice Jarre

9.

Maurice Jarre

Composer, Lawrence of Arabia

Unlike many musicians who started to learn music while still in their childhood, Maurice Jarre was already late in his teens when he discovered music and decided to make a career in that field. Against his father's will, he enrolled at Conservatoire de Paris where he studied percussions, composition and harmonies...

Image of George Fenton

10.

George Fenton

Music Department, Gandhi

Image of Gabriel Yared

11.

Gabriel Yared

Composer, The Talented Mr. Ripley

Gabriel Yared stopped his law studies at the age of 20 to work as a professional music composer. He studied with Henri Dutilleux and Maurice Ohana. He worked as a composer, orchestrator or producer for such singers as Françoise Hardy, Charles Aznavour, Gilbert Bécaud and Mireille Mathieu. He made his film debut in 1980 with the score for Jean-Luc Godard's Every Man for Himself...

Image of Dave Grusin

12.

Dave Grusin

Music Department, The Graduate

Image of James Newton Howard 13.

James Newton Howard

Music Department, The Sixth Sense

James Newton Howard attended the University of Southern California's music school, but dropped out to tour with Elton John, and eventually compose music for film and television. He started with Head Office in 1985. He has been nominated for eight Academy Awards. He currently is a songwriter, record producer, conductor, keyboardist, and film composer.

Image of Danny Elfman 14.

Danny Elfman

Music Department, Corpse Bride

As Danny Elfman was growing up in the Los Angeles area, he was largely unaware of his talent for composing. It wasn't until the early 1970s that Danny and his older brother Richard Elfman started a musical troupe while in Paris; the group "Mystic Knights of Oingo-Boingo" was created for Richard's directorial debut...

Image of John Barry 15.

John Barry

Music Department, Diamonds Are Forever

John Barry was born in York, England in 1933, and was the youngest of three children. His father, Jack, owned several local cinemas and by the age of fourteen, Barry was capable of running the projection box on his own - in particular, The Rialto in York. As he was brought up in a cinematic environment...

Image of Randy Newman 16.

Randy Newman

Soundtrack, Toy Story 3

Image of Jerry Goldsmith 17.

Jerry Goldsmith

Music Department, Mulan

Born on February 10, 1929, Jerry Goldsmith studied piano with Jakob Gimpel and composition, theory, and counterpoint with Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. He also attended classes in film composition given by Miklós Rózsa at the Univeristy of Southern California. In 1950, he was employed as a clerk typist in the music department at CBS...

Image of Gustavo Santaolalla 18.

Gustavo Santaolalla

Music Department, Brokeback Mountain

Argentine musician and leader of the now defunct bands "Arco Iris" and "Soluna", Gustavo Santaolalla was one of the references of his country's national music by the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s. During the 70s he relocated to the United States, where he formed the band Wet Picnic, with Aníbal Kerpel...

Image of Dario Marianelli 19.

Dario Marianelli

Composer, V for Vendetta

Image of Philip Glass 20.

Philip Glass

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Glass worked in his father's radio store and discovered music listening to the offbeat Western classical records customers didn't seem to want. He studied the violin and flute, and obtained early admission to the University of Chicago. After graduating in mathematics and philosophy...

Image of Alberto Iglesias 21.

Alberto Iglesias

Composer, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

Image of A.R. Rahman 22.

A.R. Rahman

Soundtrack, Slumdog Millionaire

Allah Rakha Rahman was born A.S. Dileep Kumar on January 6, 1966, in Madras (now Chennai), India, to a musically affluent family. Dileep started learning the piano at the age of 4, and at the age of 9, his father passed away. Since the pressure of supporting his family fell on him, he joined Ilayaraja's troupe as a keyboard player at the age of 11...

Image of Elliot Goldenthal 23.

Elliot Goldenthal

Composer, Heat

Elliot Goldenthal is an Academy Award-winning composer best known for his original music scores for such films as Frida and Across the Universe, among his other works. He was born on May 2, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a house-painter, and his mother was a seamstress. Young Goldenthal was fond of music and theatre...

Image of David Hirschfelder 24.

David Hirschfelder

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Image of Patrick Doyle 25.

Patrick Doyle

Composer, Brave

Patrick Doyle is a classically trained composer. His first film score, the acclaimed adaptation of "Henry V" with Kenneth Branagh for Renaissance films was scored in 1989. He has subsequently worked with Kenneth Branagh, a long time collaborator on numerous pictures including "Dead Again", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Frankenstein" and "Hamlet"...

Image of Michael Nyman 26.

Michael Nyman

Composer, The Piano

Michael Nyman studied piano, harpsichord and music history with Alan Bush at the Royal Academy of Music, and musicology with Thurston Dart at King's College, London. Between 1968 and 1978 he worked as a music critic and in 1977 he founded the Campiello Band, later renamed the Michael Nyman Band. Many of his filmscores were composed for the films of Peter Greenaway...

Image of Michael Giacchino 27.

Michael Giacchino

Composer, Ratatouille

Image of Rachel Portman 28.

Rachel Portman

Composer, Chocolat

Image of Marc Shaiman 29.

Marc Shaiman

Music Department, Hairspray

A great talent who started his career in Saturday Night Live, where he worked with colleagues like Rob Reiner or Billy Crystal. He worked for some great stage values as Eric Clapton, Rosemary Clooney, Harry Connick Jr., Billy Crystal, Lauryn Hill, Jennifer Holliday, Nathan Lane, Jenifer Lewis...

Image of Trevor Jones 30.

Trevor Jones

Composer, Notting Hill

As a child in Cape Town, Trevor Jones lived opposite the Gem Cinema. The theater was so old and worn out that there was often a loss of the soundtrack, which caused him to realize its power. The fact that everyone in his family worked in film or the theater made it easy to get support in his career choice...

Image of T-Bone Burnett 31.

T-Bone Burnett

Soundtrack, The Hunger Games

Image of Lisa Gerrard 32.

Lisa Gerrard

Music Department, Man on Fire

Image of John Powell 33.

John Powell

Composer, Happy Feet

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Best Film Composers of New Hollywood

by pookpooi created 3 months ago | last updated - 3 months ago

Only consider composers that have remarkable scores from 1985 - 2012, update once a year.

Showing all 33 People Sort by:

View:

Image of John Williams

1.

John Williams

Music Department, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

As one of the best known, awarded, and financially successful composers in US history, John Williams is as easy to recall as John Philip Sousa, Aaron Copland or Leonard Bernstein, illustrating why he is "America's composer" time and again. With a massive list of awards that includes over 41 Oscar nominations (five wins)...

Image of Hans Zimmer

2.

Hans Zimmer

Music Department, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood's most innovative musical talents, having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group's single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV...

Image of James Horner

3.

James Horner

Music Department, Titanic

James Horner began studying piano at the age of five, and trained at the Royal College of Music in London, England, before moving to California in the 1970s. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music at USC, he would go on to earn his master's degree at UCLA and teach music theory there. He later completed his Ph.D...

Image of Alexandre Desplat

4.

Alexandre Desplat

Composer, The King's Speech

Image of Howard Shore

5.

Howard Shore

Music Department, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

Image of Thomas Newman

6.

Thomas Newman

Music Department, WALL·E

Image of Ennio Morricone

7.

Ennio Morricone

Composer, The Untouchables

A classmate of director Sergio Leone with whom he would form one of the great director/composer partnerships (right up there with Eisenstein & Prokofiev, Hitchcock & Herrmann, Fellini & Rota), Ennio Morricone studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory, where he specialized in trumpet. His first film scores were relatively undistinguished...

Image of Alan Menken

8.

Alan Menken

Music Department, Aladdin

Image of Maurice Jarre

9.

Maurice Jarre

Composer, Lawrence of Arabia

Unlike many musicians who started to learn music while still in their childhood, Maurice Jarre was already late in his teens when he discovered music and decided to make a career in that field. Against his father's will, he enrolled at Conservatoire de Paris where he studied percussions, composition and harmonies...

Image of George Fenton

10.

George Fenton

Music Department, Gandhi

Image of Gabriel Yared

11.

Gabriel Yared

Composer, The Talented Mr. Ripley

Gabriel Yared stopped his law studies at the age of 20 to work as a professional music composer. He studied with Henri Dutilleux and Maurice Ohana. He worked as a composer, orchestrator or producer for such singers as Françoise Hardy, Charles Aznavour, Gilbert Bécaud and Mireille Mathieu. He made his film debut in 1980 with the score for Jean-Luc Godard's Every Man for Himself...

Image of Dave Grusin

12.

Dave Grusin

Music Department, The Graduate

Image of James Newton Howard 13.

James Newton Howard

Music Department, The Sixth Sense

James Newton Howard attended the University of Southern California's music school, but dropped out to tour with Elton John, and eventually compose music for film and television. He started with Head Office in 1985. He has been nominated for eight Academy Awards. He currently is a songwriter, record producer, conductor, keyboardist, and film composer.

Image of Danny Elfman 14.

Danny Elfman

Music Department, Corpse Bride

As Danny Elfman was growing up in the Los Angeles area, he was largely unaware of his talent for composing. It wasn't until the early 1970s that Danny and his older brother Richard Elfman started a musical troupe while in Paris; the group "Mystic Knights of Oingo-Boingo" was created for Richard's directorial debut...

Image of John Barry 15.

John Barry

Music Department, Diamonds Are Forever

John Barry was born in York, England in 1933, and was the youngest of three children. His father, Jack, owned several local cinemas and by the age of fourteen, Barry was capable of running the projection box on his own - in particular, The Rialto in York. As he was brought up in a cinematic environment...

Image of Randy Newman 16.

Randy Newman

Soundtrack, Toy Story 3

Image of Jerry Goldsmith 17.

Jerry Goldsmith

Music Department, Mulan

Born on February 10, 1929, Jerry Goldsmith studied piano with Jakob Gimpel and composition, theory, and counterpoint with Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. He also attended classes in film composition given by Miklós Rózsa at the Univeristy of Southern California. In 1950, he was employed as a clerk typist in the music department at CBS...

Image of Gustavo Santaolalla 18.

Gustavo Santaolalla

Music Department, Brokeback Mountain

Argentine musician and leader of the now defunct bands "Arco Iris" and "Soluna", Gustavo Santaolalla was one of the references of his country's national music by the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s. During the 70s he relocated to the United States, where he formed the band Wet Picnic, with Aníbal Kerpel...

Image of Dario Marianelli 19.

Dario Marianelli

Composer, V for Vendetta

Image of Philip Glass 20.

Philip Glass

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Glass worked in his father's radio store and discovered music listening to the offbeat Western classical records customers didn't seem to want. He studied the violin and flute, and obtained early admission to the University of Chicago. After graduating in mathematics and philosophy...

Image of Alberto Iglesias 21.

Alberto Iglesias

Composer, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

Image of A.R. Rahman 22.

A.R. Rahman

Soundtrack, Slumdog Millionaire

Allah Rakha Rahman was born A.S. Dileep Kumar on January 6, 1966, in Madras (now Chennai), India, to a musically affluent family. Dileep started learning the piano at the age of 4, and at the age of 9, his father passed away. Since the pressure of supporting his family fell on him, he joined Ilayaraja's troupe as a keyboard player at the age of 11...

Image of Elliot Goldenthal 23.

Elliot Goldenthal

Composer, Heat

Elliot Goldenthal is an Academy Award-winning composer best known for his original music scores for such films as Frida and Across the Universe, among his other works. He was born on May 2, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a house-painter, and his mother was a seamstress. Young Goldenthal was fond of music and theatre...

Image of David Hirschfelder 24.

David Hirschfelder

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Image of Patrick Doyle 25.

Patrick Doyle

Composer, Brave

Patrick Doyle is a classically trained composer. His first film score, the acclaimed adaptation of "Henry V" with Kenneth Branagh for Renaissance films was scored in 1989. He has subsequently worked with Kenneth Branagh, a long time collaborator on numerous pictures including "Dead Again", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Frankenstein" and "Hamlet"...

Image of Michael Nyman 26.

Michael Nyman

Composer, The Piano

Michael Nyman studied piano, harpsichord and music history with Alan Bush at the Royal Academy of Music, and musicology with Thurston Dart at King's College, London. Between 1968 and 1978 he worked as a music critic and in 1977 he founded the Campiello Band, later renamed the Michael Nyman Band. Many of his filmscores were composed for the films of Peter Greenaway...

Image of Michael Giacchino 27.

Michael Giacchino

Composer, Ratatouille

Image of Rachel Portman 28.

Rachel Portman

Composer, Chocolat

Image of Marc Shaiman 29.

Marc Shaiman

Music Department, Hairspray

A great talent who started his career in Saturday Night Live, where he worked with colleagues like Rob Reiner or Billy Crystal. He worked for some great stage values as Eric Clapton, Rosemary Clooney, Harry Connick Jr., Billy Crystal, Lauryn Hill, Jennifer Holliday, Nathan Lane, Jenifer Lewis...

Image of Trevor Jones 30.

Trevor Jones

Composer, Notting Hill

As a child in Cape Town, Trevor Jones lived opposite the Gem Cinema. The theater was so old and worn out that there was often a loss of the soundtrack, which caused him to realize its power. The fact that everyone in his family worked in film or the theater made it easy to get support in his career choice...

Image of T-Bone Burnett 31.

T-Bone Burnett

Soundtrack, The Hunger Games

Image of Lisa Gerrard 32.

Lisa Gerrard

Music Department, Man on Fire

Image of John Powell 33.

John Powell

Composer, Happy Feet

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Best Film Composers of New Hollywood

by pookpooi created 3 months ago | last updated - 3 months ago

Only consider composers that have remarkable scores from 1985 - 2012, update once a year.

Showing all 33 People Sort by:

View:

Image of John Williams

1.

John Williams

Music Department, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

As one of the best known, awarded, and financially successful composers in US history, John Williams is as easy to recall as John Philip Sousa, Aaron Copland or Leonard Bernstein, illustrating why he is "America's composer" time and again. With a massive list of awards that includes over 41 Oscar nominations (five wins)...

Image of Hans Zimmer

2.

Hans Zimmer

Music Department, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood's most innovative musical talents, having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group's single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV...

Image of James Horner

3.

James Horner

Music Department, Titanic

James Horner began studying piano at the age of five, and trained at the Royal College of Music in London, England, before moving to California in the 1970s. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music at USC, he would go on to earn his master's degree at UCLA and teach music theory there. He later completed his Ph.D...

Image of Alexandre Desplat

4.

Alexandre Desplat

Composer, The King's Speech

Image of Howard Shore

5.

Howard Shore

Music Department, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

Image of Thomas Newman

6.

Thomas Newman

Music Department, WALL·E

Image of Ennio Morricone

7.

Ennio Morricone

Composer, The Untouchables

A classmate of director Sergio Leone with whom he would form one of the great director/composer partnerships (right up there with Eisenstein & Prokofiev, Hitchcock & Herrmann, Fellini & Rota), Ennio Morricone studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory, where he specialized in trumpet. His first film scores were relatively undistinguished...

Image of Alan Menken

8.

Alan Menken

Music Department, Aladdin

Image of Maurice Jarre

9.

Maurice Jarre

Composer, Lawrence of Arabia

Unlike many musicians who started to learn music while still in their childhood, Maurice Jarre was already late in his teens when he discovered music and decided to make a career in that field. Against his father's will, he enrolled at Conservatoire de Paris where he studied percussions, composition and harmonies...

Image of George Fenton

10.

George Fenton

Music Department, Gandhi

Image of Gabriel Yared

11.

Gabriel Yared

Composer, The Talented Mr. Ripley

Gabriel Yared stopped his law studies at the age of 20 to work as a professional music composer. He studied with Henri Dutilleux and Maurice Ohana. He worked as a composer, orchestrator or producer for such singers as Françoise Hardy, Charles Aznavour, Gilbert Bécaud and Mireille Mathieu. He made his film debut in 1980 with the score for Jean-Luc Godard's Every Man for Himself...

Image of Dave Grusin

12.

Dave Grusin

Music Department, The Graduate

Image of James Newton Howard 13.

James Newton Howard

Music Department, The Sixth Sense

James Newton Howard attended the University of Southern California's music school, but dropped out to tour with Elton John, and eventually compose music for film and television. He started with Head Office in 1985. He has been nominated for eight Academy Awards. He currently is a songwriter, record producer, conductor, keyboardist, and film composer.

Image of Danny Elfman 14.

Danny Elfman

Music Department, Corpse Bride

As Danny Elfman was growing up in the Los Angeles area, he was largely unaware of his talent for composing. It wasn't until the early 1970s that Danny and his older brother Richard Elfman started a musical troupe while in Paris; the group "Mystic Knights of Oingo-Boingo" was created for Richard's directorial debut...

Image of John Barry 15.

John Barry

Music Department, Diamonds Are Forever

John Barry was born in York, England in 1933, and was the youngest of three children. His father, Jack, owned several local cinemas and by the age of fourteen, Barry was capable of running the projection box on his own - in particular, The Rialto in York. As he was brought up in a cinematic environment...

Image of Randy Newman 16.

Randy Newman

Soundtrack, Toy Story 3

Image of Jerry Goldsmith 17.

Jerry Goldsmith

Music Department, Mulan

Born on February 10, 1929, Jerry Goldsmith studied piano with Jakob Gimpel and composition, theory, and counterpoint with Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. He also attended classes in film composition given by Miklós Rózsa at the Univeristy of Southern California. In 1950, he was employed as a clerk typist in the music department at CBS...

Image of Gustavo Santaolalla 18.

Gustavo Santaolalla

Music Department, Brokeback Mountain

Argentine musician and leader of the now defunct bands "Arco Iris" and "Soluna", Gustavo Santaolalla was one of the references of his country's national music by the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s. During the 70s he relocated to the United States, where he formed the band Wet Picnic, with Aníbal Kerpel...

Image of Dario Marianelli 19.

Dario Marianelli

Composer, V for Vendetta

Image of Philip Glass 20.

Philip Glass

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Glass worked in his father's radio store and discovered music listening to the offbeat Western classical records customers didn't seem to want. He studied the violin and flute, and obtained early admission to the University of Chicago. After graduating in mathematics and philosophy...

Image of Alberto Iglesias 21.

Alberto Iglesias

Composer, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

Image of A.R. Rahman 22.

A.R. Rahman

Soundtrack, Slumdog Millionaire

Allah Rakha Rahman was born A.S. Dileep Kumar on January 6, 1966, in Madras (now Chennai), India, to a musically affluent family. Dileep started learning the piano at the age of 4, and at the age of 9, his father passed away. Since the pressure of supporting his family fell on him, he joined Ilayaraja's troupe as a keyboard player at the age of 11...

Image of Elliot Goldenthal 23.

Elliot Goldenthal

Composer, Heat

Elliot Goldenthal is an Academy Award-winning composer best known for his original music scores for such films as Frida and Across the Universe, among his other works. He was born on May 2, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a house-painter, and his mother was a seamstress. Young Goldenthal was fond of music and theatre...

Image of David Hirschfelder 24.

David Hirschfelder

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Image of Patrick Doyle 25.

Patrick Doyle

Composer, Brave

Patrick Doyle is a classically trained composer. His first film score, the acclaimed adaptation of "Henry V" with Kenneth Branagh for Renaissance films was scored in 1989. He has subsequently worked with Kenneth Branagh, a long time collaborator on numerous pictures including "Dead Again", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Frankenstein" and "Hamlet"...

Image of Michael Nyman 26.

Michael Nyman

Composer, The Piano

Michael Nyman studied piano, harpsichord and music history with Alan Bush at the Royal Academy of Music, and musicology with Thurston Dart at King's College, London. Between 1968 and 1978 he worked as a music critic and in 1977 he founded the Campiello Band, later renamed the Michael Nyman Band. Many of his filmscores were composed for the films of Peter Greenaway...

Image of Michael Giacchino 27.

Michael Giacchino

Composer, Ratatouille

Image of Rachel Portman 28.

Rachel Portman

Composer, Chocolat

Image of Marc Shaiman 29.

Marc Shaiman

Music Department, Hairspray

A great talent who started his career in Saturday Night Live, where he worked with colleagues like Rob Reiner or Billy Crystal. He worked for some great stage values as Eric Clapton, Rosemary Clooney, Harry Connick Jr., Billy Crystal, Lauryn Hill, Jennifer Holliday, Nathan Lane, Jenifer Lewis...

Image of Trevor Jones 30.

Trevor Jones

Composer, Notting Hill

As a child in Cape Town, Trevor Jones lived opposite the Gem Cinema. The theater was so old and worn out that there was often a loss of the soundtrack, which caused him to realize its power. The fact that everyone in his family worked in film or the theater made it easy to get support in his career choice...

Image of T-Bone Burnett 31.

T-Bone Burnett

Soundtrack, The Hunger Games

Image of Lisa Gerrard 32.

Lisa Gerrard

Music Department, Man on Fire

Image of John Powell 33.

John Powell

Composer, Happy Feet

See more lists » Export this list

ad feedback

List Activity

Views: 547 | last 3 days: 9

Report this list

Play The Game

Quiz: Best Film Composers of New Hollywood

Tell Your Friends

Share this list:

Create a new list

List your movie, TV & celebrity picks. Create a new list »

Other Lists By pookpooi

image of title

Most Expensive Films

a list of 71 titles

image of title

6 Best 2000 Pictures

a list of 6 titles

image of title

6 Best 2001 Pictures

a list of 6 titles

image of title

15 Best 2002 Pictures

a list of 15 titles

image of title

12 Best 2003 Pictures

a list of 12 titles

See all lists by pookpooi »

Feedback? Tell us what you think about this feature.

Home | Search | Site Index | In Theaters | Coming Soon | Top Movies | Watchlist | Top 250 | TV | News | Video | Message Boards | Press Room

Account | RSS | Advertising | Contact Us | Jobs | IMDbPro | Box Office Mojo | Withoutabox | LOVEFiLM

IMDb Mobile: iPhone/iPad | Android | Mobile site | Windows Phone 7 | IMDb Social: Facebook | Twitter

Copyright © 1990-2013 IMDb.com, Inc.

Conditions of Use | Privacy Policy | Interest-Based Ads

An company.

Amazon Affiliates

Amazon Instant Video

Watch Movies &

TV Online Prime Instant Video

Unlimited Streaming

of Movies & TV Amazon Germany

Buy Movies on

DVD & Blu-ray Amazon Italy

Buy Movies on

DVD & Blu-ray Amazon France

Buy Movies on

DVD & Blu-ray Amazon India

Buy Movie and

TV Show DVDs LOVEFiLM

Watch Movies

Online Junglee

India Online

Shopping DPReview

Digital

Photography Audible

Download

Audio Books

Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music with free mp3s

Portfolio of Music

Jordan Balagot, Composer

Jordan B, Producer

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm3248770/

B.M. in Composition,

Oberlin Conservatory of Music

M.F.A. in Music Composition for the Screen,

Columbia College Chicago

Apple Logic Pro Certified

(310) 800-2754

email me

Recent News

I was part of the music team for Cloud Atlas, working as an arranger and music programmer. The soundtrack is available on iTunes and Amazon.

I co-composed the music for the feature I Do, which is premiering at festivals worldwide.

I composed the punk music score for the short Genderfreak, and the soundtrack is available on iTunes and CDBaby.

I composed additional music for the movie Killer Elite. You can purchase the soundtrack on Amazon.

A track of mine was recently featured in a Target commercial, and also featured in Animal Planet's "My Cat from Hell."

I scored the music for the Italian film 6 Days on Earth along with industry veterans Johnny Klimek and Reinhold Heil.

I produce electronic music under the name Jordan B. New tracks below.

I orchestrated music for the band Dirty Vegas and the New World Symphony at their Synesthesia event in Miami.

More news can be found in my blog.

I am a Los Angeles-based classical and electronic composer available for film scoring, TV, video game soundtrack, and commercial work. A Composer's C.V. is available upon request. Please listen to my work samples and feel free to contact me via email or at (310) 800-2754.

Work Samples

All music copyright 2012 Jordan Balagot.

Recent Work (mp3s)

Here is the most recent work I've done. Licensing often does not permit me to display the work online, but a few clips are available in the Video section below.

Yi Soon Shin Trailer 2010, Suspense/Action

Vine and Ring Themes 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Drama

Head Case Opening 2009, Full Orchestra, Mystery/Horror

Harold Emerges 2009, Full Orchestra, Suspense/Drama

Garden Alarm 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Horror

Tools Theme 2009, Full Orchestra, Romance/Drama

A Man's Image Opening 2009, Drama/Inspirational

Age of Innocence 2009, Romance

Among All Creatures Theme 2009, Drama

Lament of the Magi 2009, Romance/Drama

Luxury Minimalist 2009, Commercial

Faire Les Quatre Cents Coups 2009, Jazz/Drama

The Usher Theme 2008, Documentary/Inspirational

Hijack Cloudy 2008, Action/Suspense

Passiflora 2008, Dance/IDM

Vision Drive 2008, Dance

2008 Chicago Film Festival Trailer 2008, Adventure

Apocalyptic Park Jog 2008, Action

The Ginger Virus 2008, Sci-Fi/Horror

Peeling it Off Theme 2008, Comedy/Children's

Rural Games 2008, Orchestration

Night Discovery 2008, Orchestration

Paranoia Drive 2008, Orchestration

Urban Pan 2008, Orchestration

Silk Romance 2008, Romance/Drama

Barnes' Fate 2008, Action/Suspense

Translations 2007, Romance/Drama

Annabel Lee 2007, Drama/Poetry

Free iPhone Ringtones

To install, right click and save the links below, then drag the m4r file to iTunes. Connect your iPhone, and under iPhone>Ringtones check sync all ringtones and sync the phone.

jordanbalagot_ring1 - a goofy free ringtone from the Peeling it Off Theme that you can install on your iPhone. (Preview)

Vibrate - allows you to have vibrate-only alarms! (The iPhone normally plays alarms out loud even in silent mode.)

Current Highlights

The Public Bathroom Door

This Target commercial features my music, currently airing nationally.

Killer Elite

I wrote additional music for Killer Elite, including the tracks "Radio", "Feathermen", and "Hunter's Release".

Yi Soon Shin Trailer

I was commissoned by Onrie Kompan to score this trailer for the Yi Soon Shin Comic.

[mp3]

I produce electronic music as Jordan B LA. I co-produced a track with the band Suspicious Package and have an upcoming music video coming out with them.

Many of my tracks were commisioned for commercials for the company Bangstyle. Please follow me on SoundCloud as Jordan B LA.

The 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival Trailer

This is the trailer for the 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival. I did the music and Ken Nordine did the film design and voiceover. The trailer plays before each movie at the festival. 2008.

[mp3]

Spark Productions Reel

The very talented Isaac Speding of New Zeland used the Ravel String Remix for his Motion Graphics Reel. Click for other videos by Isaac Speding on Vimeo. 2008.

[mp3]

Passiflora

A semi-robotic cop chases the phantom tagger, torn between killing or falling in love. A dance piece with live music and electronica. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Kate Dempsey

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

Vision Drive

Two singles serenade each other with fantasy dances in a surreal club. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Sarah Keating

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

The Ginger Virus

An original film with original music. It's 2012. President Palin has been unable to stop the collapse of the global economy. The catastrophic Ginger virus has the ability to spread between humans and computers alike. It has taken over the world bank databases and it produces devastating isolation among its human hosts. Story by Andy Hill. 2008.

[mp3]

Dash's Chase - ascii version

This is a rescoring of a clip from a popular film, and rendered in ASCII to prevent copyright violation. The audio has been completely replaced. Scored and rendered with Finale and GPO. 2006.

[mp3]

Translations

This is a score to a scene from the play Translations. The score was composed to video and then both were performed live together. The characters in the play, George and Maire, don't understand each other but find other ways to communicate. From a recital for Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Music Conductor: Francesco Milioto

Musicians: The New Millennium Orchestra

Actors: Katie Fitzgerald and Tyler Gray

[mp3]

Paranoia Drive

An orchestration of a theme by Bartok, with information overlaid (a scrolling score and a video of the film scoring recording session). Click on the high quality version on youtube and make it full screen to see the score. Music played by members of the Chicago Civic Orchestra conducted by Cliff Colnot. 2008.

[mp3]

Don Juan Action Soundtrack

This is a short clip of a submission I sent to the Turner Classic Film Scoring Competition. The music was done in Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

Raquetball

Raquetball is a short drum 'n bass music video, created with live video, Canoma 3D renderings, and Propellerhead Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

[mp3]

Tearing (5.3 MB)

This was written in memory of Leslie Roberts, a friend and fellow composition major who died suddenly in the spring of 2002. This piece was not written about her, but was rather an expression of my shock and anguish of her death. This recording was performed by a student orchestra and conducted by Jeff Nelson at my senior composition recital at Oberlin, April 20, 2003.

Concerto for Drum 'n Bass (11.7 MB)

The Concerto for Drum 'n Bass was written in an attempt to bridge the gap between classical orchestral music and intelligent dance music. It is written for live orchestra and CD, and was performed by a student orchestra at my senior recital. I wrote the electronic parts in Propellerhead Reason, and conducted the orchestra while cueing the CD. 2003.

Once (8.9 MB)

Written for Jess Rossi for her Oberlin senior voice recital, for string quartet and voice. Cowritten with Leighanne Saltsman, who also wrote the lyrics. Performed at Jess Rossi's senior recital. 2000.

Beautiful Dreamer (4.7 MB)

A Jazz Ballad for piano and voice, sung by Leighanne Saltsman. 1999. Recording of a rehearsal.

Maine Summers (6.8 MB)

Written in memory of Mabel Dennison, who passed away in the fall of 2001. For SSAATTBBB choir and as sung by the Offbeats. This a cappella piece attempts to imitate several electronic effects. 2002. Studio Recording.

Colonel Fanfare (1.3 MB)

Commissioned by Francis W. Parker school for their alumni centennial celebration, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble. Recording of a rehearsal. 2000.

Ravel String Remix (1.4 MB)

A short 6/8 drum 'n bass remix of the classic Ravel String Quartet no. 1 in F major. Made with Reason, 2002.

Levitated (1.9 MB)

A short clip of a house song. Made with Reason, 2002.

Passiflora (2.9 MB)

A fusion of classical music and drill 'n bass / breakcore, 2008.

Misc

Djurdjevdan - Village Harmony Remix

Warner Concert Hall Improvisation

Bach Remix

Film Scores

A Man's Image (short), 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Peeling it Off, 2008. Matthew Singletary, Director.

Confession, 2008. Timothy Vannette, Director.

The Usher, 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Among All Creatures, 2009. Tyrone Acierto, Director.

A Man's Image (feature), 2009. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

The Chicago International Film Festival 2008 Trailer. Ken Nordine, Producer.

Spark Productions Motion Reel. Isaac Speding, Animator.

Performed Works

Chamber Orchestra:

Concerto for Drum ‘n Bass, for chamber orchestra and CD, 2003

Tearing, 2002

Chamber work:

Beautiful Dreamer, Voice and piano. 1999

Colonel Fanfare, commissioned by Francis W. Parker High School, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble, 2001

Heimo’s Rag, 1998

Journey, for piano, 2000

Once, for string quartet and voice, 2000

Translations, for chamber ensemble, 2007

Passiflora, for chamber ensemble and tape, 2008

Choral:

Maine Summers, for SSAATBBB, 2002

Rivendell, SATB, 2003

Stage:

Electronic soundscore for Makibaka: The Truth about Freedom, 2000

Electronic music for Doors, 2002

Other:

Raquetball, electronic music video, 2003

Ravel String Remix, electronic work, 2003

Levitated, electronic work, 2003

Copyright Jordan Balagot 2012

(310) 800-2754

Download Statistics

I have started tracking mp3 downloads off this site. Most of my traffic comes from music search engines Soso, Sogou, Baidu, Tagoo, Beemp3, etc. which have only indexed my old mp3s. Please check out my more recent music (see Recent Work)!

File downloads as of Feburary 19, 2009

File Number of Downloads

jordan_balagot_among_all_creatures_theme.mp3 198,305

jordan_balagot_beautiful_dreamer.mp3 75,279

jordan_balagot_vine_ring_themes.mp3 74,764

jordan_balagot_silk_romance.mp3 54,014

jordan_balagot_annabel_lee.mp3 53,301

jordan_balagot_passiflora.mp3 34,788

jordan_balagot_yi_soon_shin_theme.mp3 34,687

jordan_balagot_tearing.mp3 24,726

jordan_balagot_once.mp3 24,611 Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music with free mp3s

Portfolio of Music

Jordan Balagot, Composer

Jordan B, Producer

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm3248770/

B.M. in Composition,

Oberlin Conservatory of Music

M.F.A. in Music Composition for the Screen,

Columbia College Chicago

Apple Logic Pro Certified

(310) 800-2754

email me

Recent News

I was part of the music team for Cloud Atlas, working as an arranger and music programmer. The soundtrack is available on iTunes and Amazon.

I co-composed the music for the feature I Do, which is premiering at festivals worldwide.

I composed the punk music score for the short Genderfreak, and the soundtrack is available on iTunes and CDBaby.

I composed additional music for the movie Killer Elite. You can purchase the soundtrack on Amazon.

A track of mine was recently featured in a Target commercial, and also featured in Animal Planet's "My Cat from Hell."

I scored the music for the Italian film 6 Days on Earth along with industry veterans Johnny Klimek and Reinhold Heil.

I produce electronic music under the name Jordan B. New tracks below.

I orchestrated music for the band Dirty Vegas and the New World Symphony at their Synesthesia event in Miami.

More news can be found in my blog.

I am a Los Angeles-based classical and electronic composer available for film scoring, TV, video game soundtrack, and commercial work. A Composer's C.V. is available upon request. Please listen to my work samples and feel free to contact me via email or at (310) 800-2754.

Work Samples

All music copyright 2012 Jordan Balagot.

Recent Work (mp3s)

Here is the most recent work I've done. Licensing often does not permit me to display the work online, but a few clips are available in the Video section below.

Yi Soon Shin Trailer 2010, Suspense/Action

Vine and Ring Themes 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Drama

Head Case Opening 2009, Full Orchestra, Mystery/Horror

Harold Emerges 2009, Full Orchestra, Suspense/Drama

Garden Alarm 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Horror

Tools Theme 2009, Full Orchestra, Romance/Drama

A Man's Image Opening 2009, Drama/Inspirational

Age of Innocence 2009, Romance

Among All Creatures Theme 2009, Drama

Lament of the Magi 2009, Romance/Drama

Luxury Minimalist 2009, Commercial

Faire Les Quatre Cents Coups 2009, Jazz/Drama

The Usher Theme 2008, Documentary/Inspirational

Hijack Cloudy 2008, Action/Suspense

Passiflora 2008, Dance/IDM

Vision Drive 2008, Dance

2008 Chicago Film Festival Trailer 2008, Adventure

Apocalyptic Park Jog 2008, Action

The Ginger Virus 2008, Sci-Fi/Horror

Peeling it Off Theme 2008, Comedy/Children's

Rural Games 2008, Orchestration

Night Discovery 2008, Orchestration

Paranoia Drive 2008, Orchestration

Urban Pan 2008, Orchestration

Silk Romance 2008, Romance/Drama

Barnes' Fate 2008, Action/Suspense

Translations 2007, Romance/Drama

Annabel Lee 2007, Drama/Poetry

Free iPhone Ringtones

To install, right click and save the links below, then drag the m4r file to iTunes. Connect your iPhone, and under iPhone>Ringtones check sync all ringtones and sync the phone.

jordanbalagot_ring1 - a goofy free ringtone from the Peeling it Off Theme that you can install on your iPhone. (Preview)

Vibrate - allows you to have vibrate-only alarms! (The iPhone normally plays alarms out loud even in silent mode.)

Current Highlights

The Public Bathroom Door

This Target commercial features my music, currently airing nationally.

Killer Elite

I wrote additional music for Killer Elite, including the tracks "Radio", "Feathermen", and "Hunter's Release".

Yi Soon Shin Trailer

I was commissoned by Onrie Kompan to score this trailer for the Yi Soon Shin Comic.

[mp3]

I produce electronic music as Jordan B LA. I co-produced a track with the band Suspicious Package and have an upcoming music video coming out with them.

Many of my tracks were commisioned for commercials for the company Bangstyle. Please follow me on SoundCloud as Jordan B LA.

The 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival Trailer

This is the trailer for the 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival. I did the music and Ken Nordine did the film design and voiceover. The trailer plays before each movie at the festival. 2008.

[mp3]

Spark Productions Reel

The very talented Isaac Speding of New Zeland used the Ravel String Remix for his Motion Graphics Reel. Click for other videos by Isaac Speding on Vimeo. 2008.

[mp3]

Passiflora

A semi-robotic cop chases the phantom tagger, torn between killing or falling in love. A dance piece with live music and electronica. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Kate Dempsey

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

Vision Drive

Two singles serenade each other with fantasy dances in a surreal club. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Sarah Keating

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

The Ginger Virus

An original film with original music. It's 2012. President Palin has been unable to stop the collapse of the global economy. The catastrophic Ginger virus has the ability to spread between humans and computers alike. It has taken over the world bank databases and it produces devastating isolation among its human hosts. Story by Andy Hill. 2008.

[mp3]

Dash's Chase - ascii version

This is a rescoring of a clip from a popular film, and rendered in ASCII to prevent copyright violation. The audio has been completely replaced. Scored and rendered with Finale and GPO. 2006.

[mp3]

Translations

This is a score to a scene from the play Translations. The score was composed to video and then both were performed live together. The characters in the play, George and Maire, don't understand each other but find other ways to communicate. From a recital for Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Music Conductor: Francesco Milioto

Musicians: The New Millennium Orchestra

Actors: Katie Fitzgerald and Tyler Gray

[mp3]

Paranoia Drive

An orchestration of a theme by Bartok, with information overlaid (a scrolling score and a video of the film scoring recording session). Click on the high quality version on youtube and make it full screen to see the score. Music played by members of the Chicago Civic Orchestra conducted by Cliff Colnot. 2008.

[mp3]

Don Juan Action Soundtrack

This is a short clip of a submission I sent to the Turner Classic Film Scoring Competition. The music was done in Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

Raquetball

Raquetball is a short drum 'n bass music video, created with live video, Canoma 3D renderings, and Propellerhead Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

[mp3]

Tearing (5.3 MB)

This was written in memory of Leslie Roberts, a friend and fellow composition major who died suddenly in the spring of 2002. This piece was not written about her, but was rather an expression of my shock and anguish of her death. This recording was performed by a student orchestra and conducted by Jeff Nelson at my senior composition recital at Oberlin, April 20, 2003.

Concerto for Drum 'n Bass (11.7 MB)

The Concerto for Drum 'n Bass was written in an attempt to bridge the gap between classical orchestral music and intelligent dance music. It is written for live orchestra and CD, and was performed by a student orchestra at my senior recital. I wrote the electronic parts in Propellerhead Reason, and conducted the orchestra while cueing the CD. 2003.

Once (8.9 MB)

Written for Jess Rossi for her Oberlin senior voice recital, for string quartet and voice. Cowritten with Leighanne Saltsman, who also wrote the lyrics. Performed at Jess Rossi's senior recital. 2000.

Beautiful Dreamer (4.7 MB)

A Jazz Ballad for piano and voice, sung by Leighanne Saltsman. 1999. Recording of a rehearsal.

Maine Summers (6.8 MB)

Written in memory of Mabel Dennison, who passed away in the fall of 2001. For SSAATTBBB choir and as sung by the Offbeats. This a cappella piece attempts to imitate several electronic effects. 2002. Studio Recording.

Colonel Fanfare (1.3 MB)

Commissioned by Francis W. Parker school for their alumni centennial celebration, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble. Recording of a rehearsal. 2000.

Ravel String Remix (1.4 MB)

A short 6/8 drum 'n bass remix of the classic Ravel String Quartet no. 1 in F major. Made with Reason, 2002.

Levitated (1.9 MB)

A short clip of a house song. Made with Reason, 2002.

Passiflora (2.9 MB)

A fusion of classical music and drill 'n bass / breakcore, 2008.

Misc

Djurdjevdan - Village Harmony Remix

Warner Concert Hall Improvisation

Bach Remix

Film Scores

A Man's Image (short), 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Peeling it Off, 2008. Matthew Singletary, Director.

Confession, 2008. Timothy Vannette, Director.

The Usher, 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Among All Creatures, 2009. Tyrone Acierto, Director.

A Man's Image (feature), 2009. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

The Chicago International Film Festival 2008 Trailer. Ken Nordine, Producer.

Spark Productions Motion Reel. Isaac Speding, Animator.

Performed Works

Chamber Orchestra:

Concerto for Drum ‘n Bass, for chamber orchestra and CD, 2003

Tearing, 2002

Chamber work:

Beautiful Dreamer, Voice and piano. 1999

Colonel Fanfare, commissioned by Francis W. Parker High School, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble, 2001

Heimo’s Rag, 1998

Journey, for piano, 2000

Once, for string quartet and voice, 2000

Translations, for chamber ensemble, 2007

Passiflora, for chamber ensemble and tape, 2008

Choral:

Maine Summers, for SSAATBBB, 2002

Rivendell, SATB, 2003

Stage:

Electronic soundscore for Makibaka: The Truth about Freedom, 2000

Electronic music for Doors, 2002

Other:

Raquetball, electronic music video, 2003

Ravel String Remix, electronic work, 2003

Levitated, electronic work, 2003

Copyright Jordan Balagot 2012

(310) 800-2754

Download Statistics

I have started tracking mp3 downloads off this site. Most of my traffic comes from music search engines Soso, Sogou, Baidu, Tagoo, Beemp3, etc. which have only indexed my old mp3s. Please check out my more recent music (see Recent Work)!

File downloads as of Feburary 19, 2009

File Number of Downloads

jordan_balagot_among_all_creatures_theme.mp3 198,305

jordan_balagot_beautiful_dreamer.mp3 75,279

jordan_balagot_vine_ring_themes.mp3 74,764

jordan_balagot_silk_romance.mp3 54,014

jordan_balagot_annabel_lee.mp3 53,301

jordan_balagot_passiflora.mp3 34,788

jordan_balagot_yi_soon_shin_theme.mp3 34,687

jordan_balagot_tearing.mp3 24,726

jordan_balagot_once.mp3 24,611

jordan_balagot_ravel_string_remix.mp3 24,303

jordan_balagot_hijack_cloudy.mp3 22,361

jordan_balagot_concerto_for_dnb.mp3 21,969

jordan_balagot_age_of_innocence.mp3 20,971

jordan_balagot_ginger_virus.mp3 20,564

jordan_balagot_hc_opening.mp3 20,554

jordan_balagot_garden_alarm.mp3 20,540

jordan_balagot_harold_emerges.mp3 20,437

jordan_balagot_colonel_fanfare.mp3 20,399

jordan_balagot_warner_improv.mp3 20,233

jordan_balagot_bach_techno_midi_remix.mp3 20,229

jordan_balagot_maine_summers.mp3 19,756

jordan_balagot_night_discovery.mp3 18,540

jordan_balagot_tools_theme.mp3 18,209

jordan_balagot_processional.mp3 18,092

jordan_balagot_djurdjevdan.mp3 17,748

jordan_balagot_film_festival_music.mp3 17,629

jordan_balagot_vision_drive.mp3 17,568

jordan_balagot_journey.mp3 17,552

jordan_balagot_the_usher_theme.mp3 17,053

jordan_balagot_rural_games.mp3 16,922

jordan_balagot_mans_image_opening.mp3 16,474

jordan_balagot_urban_pan.mp3 16,242

jordan_balagot_peeling_off_theme.mp3 15,780

jordan_balagot_translations.mp3 15,577

jordan_balagot_paranoia_drive.mp3 14,958

jordan_balagot_luxury_minimalist.mp3 14,781

jordan_balagot_raquetball.mp3 14,571

jordan_balagot_apocalyptic_park.mp3 13,469

jordan_balagot_levitated.mp3 13,410

jordan_balagot_barnes_fate.mp3 12,785

jordan_balagot_lament_of_the_magi.mp3 12,344

jordan_balagot_dashes_chase.mp3 11,472

jordan_balagot_faire_les_quatre.mp3 9,643

jordan_balagot_dongu_credits.mp3 432

Statistics tracked with custom code and HTML-Graphs.

Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music

Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music with free mp3s

Portfolio of Music

Jordan Balagot, Composer

Jordan B, Producer

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm3248770/

B.M. in Composition,

Oberlin Conservatory of Music

M.F.A. in Music Composition for the Screen,

Columbia College Chicago

Apple Logic Pro Certified

(310) 800-2754

email me

Recent News

I was part of the music team for Cloud Atlas, working as an arranger and music programmer. The soundtrack is available on iTunes and Amazon.

I co-composed the music for the feature I Do, which is premiering at festivals worldwide.

I composed the punk music score for the short Genderfreak, and the soundtrack is available on iTunes and CDBaby.

I composed additional music for the movie Killer Elite. You can purchase the soundtrack on Amazon.

A track of mine was recently featured in a Target commercial, and also featured in Animal Planet's "My Cat from Hell."

I scored the music for the Italian film 6 Days on Earth along with industry veterans Johnny Klimek and Reinhold Heil.

I produce electronic music under the name Jordan B. New tracks below.

I orchestrated music for the band Dirty Vegas and the New World Symphony at their Synesthesia event in Miami.

More news can be found in my blog.

I am a Los Angeles-based classical and electronic composer available for film scoring, TV, video game soundtrack, and commercial work. A Composer's C.V. is available upon request. Please listen to my work samples and feel free to contact me via email or at (310) 800-2754.

Work Samples

All music copyright 2012 Jordan Balagot.

Recent Work (mp3s)

Here is the most recent work I've done. Licensing often does not permit me to display the work online, but a few clips are available in the Video section below.

Yi Soon Shin Trailer 2010, Suspense/Action

Vine and Ring Themes 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Drama

Head Case Opening 2009, Full Orchestra, Mystery/Horror

Harold Emerges 2009, Full Orchestra, Suspense/Drama

Garden Alarm 2009, Full Orchestra, Action/Horror

Tools Theme 2009, Full Orchestra, Romance/Drama

A Man's Image Opening 2009, Drama/Inspirational

Age of Innocence 2009, Romance

Among All Creatures Theme 2009, Drama

Lament of the Magi 2009, Romance/Drama

Luxury Minimalist 2009, Commercial

Faire Les Quatre Cents Coups 2009, Jazz/Drama

The Usher Theme 2008, Documentary/Inspirational

Hijack Cloudy 2008, Action/Suspense

Passiflora 2008, Dance/IDM

Vision Drive 2008, Dance

2008 Chicago Film Festival Trailer 2008, Adventure

Apocalyptic Park Jog 2008, Action

The Ginger Virus 2008, Sci-Fi/Horror

Peeling it Off Theme 2008, Comedy/Children's

Rural Games 2008, Orchestration

Night Discovery 2008, Orchestration

Paranoia Drive 2008, Orchestration

Urban Pan 2008, Orchestration

Silk Romance 2008, Romance/Drama

Barnes' Fate 2008, Action/Suspense

Translations 2007, Romance/Drama

Annabel Lee 2007, Drama/Poetry

Free iPhone Ringtones

To install, right click and save the links below, then drag the m4r file to iTunes. Connect your iPhone, and under iPhone>Ringtones check sync all ringtones and sync the phone.

jordanbalagot_ring1 - a goofy free ringtone from the Peeling it Off Theme that you can install on your iPhone. (Preview)

Vibrate - allows you to have vibrate-only alarms! (The iPhone normally plays alarms out loud even in silent mode.)

Current Highlights

The Public Bathroom Door

This Target commercial features my music, currently airing nationally.

Killer Elite

I wrote additional music for Killer Elite, including the tracks "Radio", "Feathermen", and "Hunter's Release".

Yi Soon Shin Trailer

I was commissoned by Onrie Kompan to score this trailer for the Yi Soon Shin Comic.

[mp3]

I produce electronic music as Jordan B LA. I co-produced a track with the band Suspicious Package and have an upcoming music video coming out with them.

Many of my tracks were commisioned for commercials for the company Bangstyle. Please follow me on SoundCloud as Jordan B LA.

The 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival Trailer

This is the trailer for the 44th Annual Chicago International Film Festival. I did the music and Ken Nordine did the film design and voiceover. The trailer plays before each movie at the festival. 2008.

[mp3]

Spark Productions Reel

The very talented Isaac Speding of New Zeland used the Ravel String Remix for his Motion Graphics Reel. Click for other videos by Isaac Speding on Vimeo. 2008.

[mp3]

Passiflora

A semi-robotic cop chases the phantom tagger, torn between killing or falling in love. A dance piece with live music and electronica. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Kate Dempsey

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

Vision Drive

Two singles serenade each other with fantasy dances in a surreal club. For Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Dancers: Kevin Dirkson, Sarah Keating

Choreography: Wilfredo Rivera

[mp3]

The Ginger Virus

An original film with original music. It's 2012. President Palin has been unable to stop the collapse of the global economy. The catastrophic Ginger virus has the ability to spread between humans and computers alike. It has taken over the world bank databases and it produces devastating isolation among its human hosts. Story by Andy Hill. 2008.

[mp3]

Dash's Chase - ascii version

This is a rescoring of a clip from a popular film, and rendered in ASCII to prevent copyright violation. The audio has been completely replaced. Scored and rendered with Finale and GPO. 2006.

[mp3]

Translations

This is a score to a scene from the play Translations. The score was composed to video and then both were performed live together. The characters in the play, George and Maire, don't understand each other but find other ways to communicate. From a recital for Columbia Chicago's Music for the Screen MFA program. 2008.

Music Conductor: Francesco Milioto

Musicians: The New Millennium Orchestra

Actors: Katie Fitzgerald and Tyler Gray

[mp3]

Paranoia Drive

An orchestration of a theme by Bartok, with information overlaid (a scrolling score and a video of the film scoring recording session). Click on the high quality version on youtube and make it full screen to see the score. Music played by members of the Chicago Civic Orchestra conducted by Cliff Colnot. 2008.

[mp3]

Don Juan Action Soundtrack

This is a short clip of a submission I sent to the Turner Classic Film Scoring Competition. The music was done in Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

Raquetball

Raquetball is a short drum 'n bass music video, created with live video, Canoma 3D renderings, and Propellerhead Reason. Real player version still available. 2003.

[mp3]

Tearing (5.3 MB)

This was written in memory of Leslie Roberts, a friend and fellow composition major who died suddenly in the spring of 2002. This piece was not written about her, but was rather an expression of my shock and anguish of her death. This recording was performed by a student orchestra and conducted by Jeff Nelson at my senior composition recital at Oberlin, April 20, 2003.

Concerto for Drum 'n Bass (11.7 MB)

The Concerto for Drum 'n Bass was written in an attempt to bridge the gap between classical orchestral music and intelligent dance music. It is written for live orchestra and CD, and was performed by a student orchestra at my senior recital. I wrote the electronic parts in Propellerhead Reason, and conducted the orchestra while cueing the CD. 2003.

Once (8.9 MB)

Written for Jess Rossi for her Oberlin senior voice recital, for string quartet and voice. Cowritten with Leighanne Saltsman, who also wrote the lyrics. Performed at Jess Rossi's senior recital. 2000.

Beautiful Dreamer (4.7 MB)

A Jazz Ballad for piano and voice, sung by Leighanne Saltsman. 1999. Recording of a rehearsal.

Maine Summers (6.8 MB)

Written in memory of Mabel Dennison, who passed away in the fall of 2001. For SSAATTBBB choir and as sung by the Offbeats. This a cappella piece attempts to imitate several electronic effects. 2002. Studio Recording.

Colonel Fanfare (1.3 MB)

Commissioned by Francis W. Parker school for their alumni centennial celebration, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble. Recording of a rehearsal. 2000.

Ravel String Remix (1.4 MB)

A short 6/8 drum 'n bass remix of the classic Ravel String Quartet no. 1 in F major. Made with Reason, 2002.

Levitated (1.9 MB)

A short clip of a house song. Made with Reason, 2002.

Passiflora (2.9 MB)

A fusion of classical music and drill 'n bass / breakcore, 2008.

Misc

Djurdjevdan - Village Harmony Remix

Warner Concert Hall Improvisation

Bach Remix

Film Scores

A Man's Image (short), 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Peeling it Off, 2008. Matthew Singletary, Director.

Confession, 2008. Timothy Vannette, Director.

The Usher, 2008. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

Among All Creatures, 2009. Tyrone Acierto, Director.

A Man's Image (feature), 2009. Carolyn Okafor, Director.

The Chicago International Film Festival 2008 Trailer. Ken Nordine, Producer.

Spark Productions Motion Reel. Isaac Speding, Animator.

Performed Works

Chamber Orchestra:

Concerto for Drum ‘n Bass, for chamber orchestra and CD, 2003

Tearing, 2002

Chamber work:

Beautiful Dreamer, Voice and piano. 1999

Colonel Fanfare, commissioned by Francis W. Parker High School, performed by the Northwestern Brass Ensemble, 2001

Heimo’s Rag, 1998

Journey, for piano, 2000

Once, for string quartet and voice, 2000

Translations, for chamber ensemble, 2007

Passiflora, for chamber ensemble and tape, 2008

Choral:

Maine Summers, for SSAATBBB, 2002

Rivendell, SATB, 2003

Stage:

Electronic soundscore for Makibaka: The Truth about Freedom, 2000

Electronic music for Doors, 2002

Other:

Raquetball, electronic music video, 2003

Ravel String Remix, electronic work, 2003

Levitated, electronic work, 2003

Copyright Jordan Balagot 2012

(310) 800-2754

Download Statistics

I have started tracking mp3 downloads off this site. Most of my traffic comes from music search engines Soso, Sogou, Baidu, Tagoo, Beemp3, etc. which have only indexed my old mp3s. Please check out my more recent music (see Recent Work)!

File downloads as of Feburary 19, 2009

File Number of Downloads

jordan_balagot_among_all_creatures_theme.mp3 198,305

jordan_balagot_beautiful_dreamer.mp3 75,279

jordan_balagot_vine_ring_themes.mp3 74,764

jordan_balagot_silk_romance.mp3 54,014

jordan_balagot_annabel_lee.mp3 53,301

jordan_balagot_passiflora.mp3 34,788

jordan_balagot_yi_soon_shin_theme.mp3 34,687

jordan_balagot_tearing.mp3 24,726

jordan_balagot_once.mp3 24,611

jordan_balagot_ravel_string_remix.mp3 24,303

jordan_balagot_hijack_cloudy.mp3 22,361

jordan_balagot_concerto_for_dnb.mp3 21,969

jordan_balagot_age_of_innocence.mp3 20,971

jordan_balagot_ginger_virus.mp3 20,564

jordan_balagot_hc_opening.mp3 20,554

jordan_balagot_garden_alarm.mp3 20,540

jordan_balagot_harold_emerges.mp3 20,437

jordan_balagot_colonel_fanfare.mp3 20,399

jordan_balagot_warner_improv.mp3 20,233

jordan_balagot_bach_techno_midi_remix.mp3 20,229

jordan_balagot_maine_summers.mp3 19,756

jordan_balagot_night_discovery.mp3 18,540

jordan_balagot_tools_theme.mp3 18,209

jordan_balagot_processional.mp3 18,092

jordan_balagot_djurdjevdan.mp3 17,748

jordan_balagot_film_festival_music.mp3 17,629

jordan_balagot_vision_drive.mp3 17,568

jordan_balagot_journey.mp3 17,552

jordan_balagot_the_usher_theme.mp3 17,053

jordan_balagot_rural_games.mp3 16,922

jordan_balagot_mans_image_opening.mp3 16,474

jordan_balagot_urban_pan.mp3 16,242

jordan_balagot_peeling_off_theme.mp3 15,780

jordan_balagot_translations.mp3 15,577

jordan_balagot_paranoia_drive.mp3 14,958

jordan_balagot_luxury_minimalist.mp3 14,781

jordan_balagot_raquetball.mp3 14,571

jordan_balagot_apocalyptic_park.mp3 13,469

jordan_balagot_levitated.mp3 13,410

jordan_balagot_barnes_fate.mp3 12,785

jordan_balagot_lament_of_the_magi.mp3 12,344

jordan_balagot_dashes_chase.mp3 11,472

jordan_balagot_faire_les_quatre.mp3 9,643

jordan_balagot_dongu_credits.mp3 432

Statistics tracked with custom code and HTML-Graphs.

Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music

jordan_balagot_ravel_string_remix.mp3 24,303

jordan_balagot_hijack_cloudy.mp3 22,361

jordan_balagot_concerto_for_dnb.mp3 21,969

jordan_balagot_age_of_innocence.mp3 20,971

jordan_balagot_ginger_virus.mp3 20,564

jordan_balagot_hc_opening.mp3 20,554

jordan_balagot_garden_alarm.mp3 20,540

jordan_balagot_harold_emerges.mp3 20,437

jordan_balagot_colonel_fanfare.mp3 20,399

jordan_balagot_warner_improv.mp3 20,233

jordan_balagot_bach_techno_midi_remix.mp3 20,229

jordan_balagot_maine_summers.mp3 19,756

jordan_balagot_night_discovery.mp3 18,540

jordan_balagot_tools_theme.mp3 18,209

jordan_balagot_processional.mp3 18,092

jordan_balagot_djurdjevdan.mp3 17,748

jordan_balagot_film_festival_music.mp3 17,629

jordan_balagot_vision_drive.mp3 17,568

jordan_balagot_journey.mp3 17,552

jordan_balagot_the_usher_theme.mp3 17,053

jordan_balagot_rural_games.mp3 16,922

jordan_balagot_mans_image_opening.mp3 16,474

jordan_balagot_urban_pan.mp3 16,242

jordan_balagot_peeling_off_theme.mp3 15,780

jordan_balagot_translations.mp3 15,577

jordan_balagot_paranoia_drive.mp3 14,958

jordan_balagot_luxury_minimalist.mp3 14,781

jordan_balagot_raquetball.mp3 14,571

jordan_balagot_apocalyptic_park.mp3 13,469

jordan_balagot_levitated.mp3 13,410

jordan_balagot_barnes_fate.mp3 12,785

jordan_balagot_lament_of_the_magi.mp3 12,344

jordan_balagot_dashes_chase.mp3 11,472

jordan_balagot_faire_les_quatre.mp3 9,643

jordan_balagot_dongu_credits.mp3 432

Statistics tracked with custom code and HTML-Graphs.

Film Composer Jordan Balagot - Portfolio of Music

Film score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

A film score (also sometimes called film music, background music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, new-age and ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Syncing

1.2.1 Written click track

1.3 Writing

1.4 Orchestration

1.5 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 Artistic merit

4 History

5 Composers

5.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

5.2 Other award nominees and winners

5.3 Box office champions

6 Relation with directors

7 Production music

8 See also

8.1 Film music organizations

8.2 Film music review sites

8.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

8.4 Journals

9 References

10 Further reading

11 External links

Process of creation[edit]

Spotting[edit]

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

Syncing[edit]

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock, or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

Written click track[edit]

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more expressive cues. One can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

\frac{60}{bpm}(x)=W

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or 2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

\frac{60}{88}(4)=2.72

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

Once the composer has identified the location in the film they wish to sync with musically, they must determine the musical beat this event occurs on. To find this, they use the following equation, where bpm is beats per minute, sp is the sync point in real-time (i.e. 33.7 seconds), and B is the beat number in 1/3 increments (i.e. 49⅔).

\frac{bpm(sp)}{60}+1=B

Writing[edit]

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Digital Performer, Logic Pro, Finale, Cubase, or Protools.[10] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

Orchestration[edit]

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" into instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing them to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score. In many cases, time constraints determined by the film's post-production schedule dictate whether composers orchestrate their own scores, as it is often impossible for the composer to complete all the required tasks within the timeframe allowed.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

Recording[edit]

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra (performing film music since 1935)[11] the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated mostly to recording), the BBC Philharmonic, and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[12]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

Elements of a film score[edit]

Temp tracks[edit]

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[13] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[14] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[15] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[16] Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (Alan Silvestri),[17] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore),[18] and The Bourne Identity (Carter Burwell).[19]

Structure[edit]

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[20] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. An example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details).[21] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[22] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

Source music[edit]

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[23] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's The Deer Hunter. Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

Artistic merit[edit]

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The artistic merits of film music are frequently debated. Some critics value it highly, pointing to music such as that written by Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Aaron Copland, Bernard Herrmann, and others. Some consider film music to be a defining genre of classical music in the late 20th century, if only because it is the brand of classical music heard more often than any other. In some cases, film themes have become accepted into the canon of classical music. These are mostly works from already noted composers who have done scores, for instance Sergei Prokofiev's score to Alexander Nevsky or Vaughan Williams' score to Scott of the Antarctic. Others see the great bulk of film music as meritless. They consider that much film music is derivative, borrowing heavily from previous works. Composers of film scores typically can produce about three or four per year. The most popular works by composers such as John Williams and Danny Elfman are still far from entering the accepted canon. Even so, considering they are often the most popular modern compositions of classical music known to the general public, major orchestras sometimes perform concerts of such music.

History[edit]

According to Kurt London, film music "began not as a result of any artistic urge, but from a dire need of something which would drown the noise made by the projector. For in those times there was as yet no sound-absorbent walls between the projection machine and the auditorium. This painful noise disturbed visual enjoyment to no small extent. Instinctively cinema proprietors had recourse to music, and it was the right way, using an agreeable sound to neutralize one less agreeable."[24]

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. A pianist was present to perform at the Lumiere brother's first film screening in 1895.[25] In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[26] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of photoplay music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – Eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 – music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer.

When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used music in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[27] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[27] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

Composers[edit]

Academy Award nominees and winners[edit]

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Ludovic Bource (1 win)

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

William Butler

R. Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Mychael Danna (1 win)

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Louis Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Earle H. Hagen

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (2 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (2 wins)

Kris Kristofferson

Tylwyth Kymry

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Owen Pallett

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Steven Price (1 win)

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

George Aliceson Tipton

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [2]

Other award nominees and winners[edit]

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar for their scores (Songwriting nominations are not included in the Oscar nominees list). Winners of an Award appear in bold.

Panu Aaltio (IFMCA)

Neal Acree

Tree Adams

Mark Adler

Petri Alanko

Van Alexander

John Altman (Emmy)

Elik Alvarez

Armand Amar (IFMCA)

Benny Andersson

Oscar Araujo (IFMCA)

Craig Armstrong (Globe, BAFTA, Grammy)

Ólafur Arnalds

David Arnold (Grammy)

Lee Aronsohn

Nick Arundel

Georges Auric

Bruce Babcock (Emmy)

Chris P. Bacon

Angelo Badalamenti

Klaus Badelt

Lorne Balfe

Richard Band

Roque Baños (IFMCA)

Gato Barbieri

Andrew Barnabas

Nathan Barr

Daemion Barry

Lionel Bart

Steve Bartek (IFMCA)

Ben Bartlett (BAFTA)

Stephen Barton

Arnau Bataller (IFMCA)

Tyler Bates

Jeff Beal (Emmy)

Christophe Beck (Emmy)

Jeff Beck (BAFTA)

Hal Beckett

Dom Beken

Jacques Belasco

David Bell

Richard Bellis (Emmy)

César Benito

Charles Bernstein

Amin Bhatia

Nick Bicât

Alan Blaikely

Howard Blake

Terence Blanchard

Frankie Blue

Todd Boekelheide

Marc Bonilla

Pieter Bourke

Simon Boswell

Perry Botkin Jr.

David Bowie

Mark Bradshaw

Steven Bramson

Jon Brion

Michael Brook

Joseph Brooks

Dirk Brossé

Russell Brower

Bill Brown

Stephen Bruton

Velton Ray Bunch (Emmy)

Geoffrey Burgon (BAFTA)

T-Bone Burnett (BAFTA)

Andy Burrows

Carter Burwell (Emmy, IFMCA)

Edmund Butt

Brian Byrne

John Cacavas

Sean Callery (Emmy)

John Cameron

Mark Rayen Candasamy

Paul Cantelon

Sam Cardon

Kristopher Carter

Dick Cathcart

Bartosz Chajdecki

Jay Chattaway (Emmy)

The Chemical Brothers

Paul Chihara

Sylvain Chomet

The Cinematic Orchestra

Clannad (BAFTA)

Eric Clapton (BAFTA)

Stanley Clarke

Sarah Class

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Elia Cmiral (IFMCA)

Robert Cobert

Adam Cohen

Harvey Cohen

Ray Colcord

Lisa Coleman (Emmy)

Michel Colombier

Frank Comstock

Joseph Conlan

Ry Cooder

Stewart Copeland

Normand Corbeil (BAFTA)

Joel Corelitz

Jane Antonia Cornish (BAFTA)

Elvis Costello (BAFTA)

Bruno Coulais (IFMCA)

Paddy Cunneen

Daft Punk (IFMCA)

Burkhard Dallwitz (Globe)

Jeff Danna

Mason Daring

Shaun Davey

Martin Davich (Emmy)

Caine Davidson

Terry Davies

Carl Davis (BAFTA)

Don Davis (Emmy)

Dean DeBenedictis

Dick DeBenedictis

Tim De Laughter

Paco de Lucía

Manuel De Sica

Zacarías M. de la Riva

Barry De Vorzon

Marius de Vries (BAFTA)

Jason Derlatka

Olivier Derivière (IFMCA)

Vince DiCola

James Di Pasquale (Emmy)

Neil Diamond (Globe, Grammy)

Ramin Djawadi

Nicholas Dodd

Jim Dooley (Emmy)

Pino Donaggio

Steve Dorff

Joel Douek

Johnny Douglas

David Duke

Charles Dumont

Robert Duncan

Bob Dylan

Clint Eastwood

Fred Ebb

Alex Ebert (Globe)

Randy Edelman

Greg Edmonson (BAFTA)

Jon Ehrlich

Jared Emerson-Johnson

Paul Englishby (Emmy)

Brian Eno (BAFTA)

Roger Eno

Micky Erbe

Kolja Erdmann

Ilan Eshkeri (IFMCA)

Laurent Eyquem (IFMCA)

Harold Faltermeyer (Grammy)

Louis Febre (Emmy)

Allyn Ferguson (Emmy)

Peter Filleul

Ron Fish

Dan Foliart

Robert Folk

Troels Brun Folmann (BAFTA)

David Foster

Charles Fox (Emmy)

David Michael Frank

Benjamin Frankel

Dominic Frontiere (Globe)

Mitchell Froom

Peter Gabriel

Pascal Gaigne

Brian Gascoigne

Chris Gerolmo

Lisa Gerrard (Globe)

Barry Gibb

Maurice Gibb

Robin Gibb

Philip Giffin

Norman Gimbel

Scott Glasgow

Evelyn Glennie

Nick Glennie-Smith

Murray Gold (IFMCA)

Nick Gold

Billy Goldenberg (Emmy)

Joel Goldsmith

Jonathan Goldsmith (BAFTA)

William Goldstein

Howard Goodall (Emmy, BAFTA)

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Gordon Goodwin

Christopher Gordon

Morton Gould

Gerald Gouriet

Patrick Gowers (BAFTA)

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves (BAFTA)

David Gray

Bernard Green

Jonny Greenwood

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Herbert Grönemeyer

Guy Gross

Larry Groupé

Akari Groves (BAFTA)

Jay Gruska

Ivor Guest

Edo Guidotti

Christopher Gunning (BAFTA)

Arlo Guthrie

Andrew Hale (BAFTA)

Simon Hale (BAFTA)

Hiroyuki Hamada (BAFTA)

David Hamilton

Jan Hammer

John P. Hammond

James Hannigan (IFMCA)

Joe Harnell

David Hartley

Richard Hartley (Emmy)

Richard Harvey (BAFTA)

Jimmie Haskell (Emmy)

Paul Haslinger

Knut Avenstroup Haugen (IFMCA)

Alan Hawkshaw

Alex Heffes

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Oliver Heuss

Andrew Hewitt

Derek Hilton

Joe Hisaishi (IFMCA)

Christopher Hoag

Michael Hoenig

Wataru Hokoyama

Lee Holdridge (Emmy)

Richard Holmes

Junior Homrich

Nellee Hooper (BAFTA)

Nicholas Hooper (BAFTA)

Kenyon Hopkins

Richard Horowitz (Globe)

David Housden

Ken Howard

Dave Howman

Dick Hyman

Inti Illimani

Jerrold Immel

Steve Jablonsky

Henry Jackman

Joe Jackson

Andre Jacquemin

Richard Jacques

Chaz Jankel

Elton John

Carl Johnson (Emmy)

Adrian Johnston (BAFTA, Emmy)

Nathan Johnson (IFMCA)

Quincy Jones III

Dan Jones (BAFTA)

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones

Michael Josephs

Wilfred Josephs

Federico Jusid (IFMCA)

Michael Kamen (BAFTA)

John Kander

Laura Karpman

Brian Keane

John M. Keane

Victoria Kelly

Arthur Kempel

Rolfe Kent

Wojciech Kilar

Kaki King

Paddy Kingsland

Grant Kirkhope

Kitaro (Globe)

Christopher Klatman

George Kleinsinger

Johnny Klimek

Mark Knopfler

Philipp F. Kölmel

Krzysztof Komeda

Koji Kondo

Rei Kondo (BAFTA)

Abel Korzeniowski (IFMCA)

Tsutomu Kouno

Henry Krieger

Kurt Kuenne

Jesper Kyd (BAFTA)

Russ Landau (Emmy)

Robert Lane (BAFTA, IFMCA)

Mark Leggett

Christopher Lennertz

Paul Leonard-Morgan

Stewart Levin

Jed Lieber (BAFTA)

Jeff Lippencott

Rick Lloyd (BAFTA)

Brian Lock

Andrew Lockington (IFMCA)

Joseph LoDuca (Emmy)

Robert Logan

Henning Lohner

Chuck Lorre

John Lunn (Emmy)

John Lurie

Danny Lux

David Mackay

Dan Mackenzie

Nuno Malo (IFMCA)

Mark Mancina

Johnny Mandel (Grammy)

Chuck Mangione

Hummie Mann (Emmy)

Clint Mansell

David Mansfield

Gerard Marino

Franklyn Marks

Wynton Marsalis

Peter Martin

Cliff Martinez (IFMCA)

Rob Mathes

Curtis Mayfield

Paddy McAloon

Michael McCann

Dennis McCarthy (Emmy)

Bear McCreary (Emmy, IFMCA)

Michael McCuistion

Mark McKenzie

Joel McNeely (Emmy)

Gil Melle

Wendy Melvoin (Emmy)

Bruce Miller

Philip Miller

Sheldon Mirowitz

Dudley Moore

Charlie Mole

Hugo Montenegro

Zeltia Montes

Tony Morales

Andrea Morricone (BAFTA)

Trevor Morris (Emmy)

Mark Mothersbaugh

Nico Muhly

Joseph Mullendore

John Murphy

Walter Murphy (IFMCA)

Jennie Muskett

Stanley Myers (BAFTA)

Jimmy Nail

Blake Neely

Garth Neustadter (Emmy)

Joey Newman

Lennie Niehaus (Emmy)

Graeme Norgate

Julian Nott (IFMCA)

Michael Nyman

Hazel O'Connor

Mike Oldfield

Terry Oldfield

Brian d'Oliveira

Miguel d'Oliveira

Riz Ortolani

Mark Orton

Karen Orzolek

Kow Otani

John Ottman

Marty Paich

Jim Parker (BAFTA)

John Carl Parker

Van Dyke Parks

Alex Patersen

Larry Paxton

Danny Pelfrey

Daniel Pemberton

James Peterson (IFMCA)

Jean-Claude Petit (BAFTA)

Barrington Pheloung

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

Martin Phipps (BAFTA)

Douglas Pipes

Michael Richard Plowman

Basil Poledouris (Emmy)

Jocelyn Pook

Conrad Pope (IFMCA)

Vince Pope

Arie Posner

Mike Post (Emmy)

Zbigniew Preisner

Alan Price (BAFTA)

Andy Price

Michael Price

Paul Pritchard

Craig Pruess

Queen

Harry Rabinowitz

Nic Raine

Alfred Ralston

Ron Ramin

Don B. Ray

Mike Reagan

J.A.C. Redford

Brian Reitzell

Graeme Revell

Víctor Reyes (IFMCA)

Tim Rice

Jeff Richmond

Max Richter

Frank Ricotti (BAFTA)

Kevin Riepl

Lolita Ritmanis

Richard Rodgers (Emmy)

Edward Rogers

Simon Rogers

Sonny Rollins

Philippe Rombi

Harold Rome

Dan Romer

Jeff Rona

Brett Rosenberg (IFMCA)

Lior Rosner

William Ross

Glen Roven

Arthur B. Rubinstein (Emmy)

Pete Rugolo (Emmy)

Mark Russell

The RZA

Jeremy Sams (BAFTA)

Mikael Sandgren

Arturo Sandoval (Emmy)

Anton Sanko

Kevin Sargent

Naoki Sato

Erik Schrody

Walter Schumann (Emmy)

David Schwartz

Nan Schwartz

Garry Schyman

Ilona Sekacz

Theodore Shapiro (IFMCA)

Russell Shaw

Edward Shearmur (Emmy, IFMCA)

Freddy Sheinfeld

Philip Sheppard

Bill Sherman

Kevin Shields

David Shire

Ryan Shore

Clinton Shorter

Lawrence Shragge

Carlo Siliotto

Carly Simon

Paul Simon

Michael Skloff

Cezary Skubiszewski

Mark Snow

Johan Söderqvist

Maribeth Solomon

Jeremy Soule (BAFTA)

Tim Souster (BAFTA)

Glen Stafford

Michael Stearns

Morton Stevens (Emmy)

Gary Stockdale

Richard Stone

Michael Storey

Marc Streitenfeld

Charles Strouse

Marty Stuart

Koichi Sugiyama

Taj Mahal

Tamiya Terajima

Mikis Theodorakis (BAFTA)

Third Ear Band

Bob Thiele, Jr.

Mark Thomas

Yann Tiersen

Martin Tillmann

Chris Tilton

Nobuko Toda

Sheridan Tongue

Pinar Toprak (IFMCA)

Colin Towns

Joseph Trapanese

Ernest Troost (Emmy)

Tim Truman

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Masami Ueda (BAFTA)

Nobuo Uematsu

Bjorn Ulvaeus

Jack Urbont

Marc Vaíllo

Jeff Van Dyk

Eddie Vedder

Cris Velasco

Fernando Velázquez (IFMCA)

James L. Venable

Lucas Vidal

Joseph Vitarelli (IFMCA)

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden (Emmy)

Shirley Walker

Jack Wall

Benjamin Wallfisch

Don Was (BAFTA)

Mark Watters

Richard Wells

Rick Wentworth

Nigel Westlake

Jonathan Whitehead

Norman Whitfield (Grammy)

Frederik Wiedmann

Kristin Wilkinson

Marc Wilkinson

Patrick Williams (Emmy)

Nancy Wilson

Stanley Wilson

Austin Wintory (BAFTA, IFMCA)

Debbie Wiseman

Stevie Wonder

Christopher Wong

John Robert Wood

Alex Wurman (Emmy)

Timothy Michael Wynn

Hiroshi Yamaguchi (BAFTA)

Mahito Yokota

Christopher Young (IFMCA)

Kenneth C. M. Young

Geoff Zanelli (Emmy)

Marcelo Zarvos

Benh Zeitlin

Aaron Zigman

Inon Zur

Atli Örvarsson

Sources: HFPA Award Search [3], BAFTA Awards Database [4], Primetime Emmy Award Database [5], Grammy Awards Archive [6], IFMCA Awards Archive [7]

Box office champions[edit]

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010), The Smurfs (2011), Despicable Me 2 (2013)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

Thomas Wanker – 2012 (2009)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010), Despicable Me 2 (2013)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [8], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [9], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [10]

Relation with directors[edit]

Sometimes, a composer may unite with a director by composing the score for many films of a same director. For example, Danny Elfman did the score for all the movies directed by Tim Burton, with the exception of Ed Wood (score by Howard Shore) and Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (score by Stephen Sondheim). Other examples are John Williams and Steven Spielberg, Jerry Goldsmith with Joe Dante and Franklin Schaffner, Ennio Morricone with Sergio Leone, Mauro Bolognini and Giuseppe Tornatore, Alan Silvestri and Robert Zemeckis, Angelo Badalamenti and David Lynch, James Newton Howard and M. Night Shyamalan, Éric Serra and Luc Besson, Patrick Doyle and Kenneth Brannagh, Howard Shore and David Cronenberg, Carter Burwell and Joel & Ethan Coen, Harry Gregson-Williams and Tony Scott, and Clint Mansell and Darren Aronofsky.

Production music[edit]

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Jingle Punks, Associated Production Music, VideoHelper and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers – they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was set up by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[28] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[29] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[30]

See also[edit]

Portal icon film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

List of film director and composer collaborations

Musivisual Language

Sheet music

Theatre music

Film music organizations[edit]

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

PRS for Music - Performing rights organization (UK)

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

Film music review sites[edit]

Filmtracks.com

Soundtrack.net

Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels[edit]

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Entr'acte Recording Society

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

Varèse Sarabande

Journals[edit]

Film Score Monthly

References[edit]

Jump up ^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

Jump up ^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

Jump up ^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

Jump up ^ Film scoring

Jump up ^ The Creators

Jump up ^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

Jump up ^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

Jump up ^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

Jump up ^ SMPTE

Jump up ^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8256-7308-5

Jump up ^ London Symphony Orchestra and Film Music LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011

Jump up ^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

Jump up ^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

Jump up ^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

Jump up ^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

Jump up ^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

Jump up ^ [1]

Jump up ^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

Jump up ^ The Bourne Identity

Jump up ^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

Jump up ^ Star Wars and Wagner's Ring

Jump up ^ About The Film Music Society

Jump up ^ The Functions of Film Music

Jump up ^ London. Film Music, p.28. Faber and Faber. Cited in Albright, Daniel, ed. (2004). Modernism and Music, p.96n40. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

Jump up ^ Film music: a history By James Eugene Wierzbicki, p.20

Jump up ^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ Jump up to: a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

Jump up ^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

Jump up ^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.[citation needed]

Jump up ^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

Further reading[edit]

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Dorschel, Andreas (ed.). Tonspuren. Musik im Film: Fallstudien 1994 - 2001. Universal Edition, Vienna - London - New York 2005 (Studien zur Wertungsforschung 46). ISBN 3-7024-2885-2. Scrutinizes film score practice at the turn from the 20th to 21st century. In German.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Harris, Steve. Film, Television, and Stage Music on Phonograph Records: a Discography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1988. ISBN 0-89950-251-2

MacDonald, Laurence E. (1998) The Invisible Art of Film Music: A Comprehensive History Scarecrow Press ISBN 9781461673040

Sherk, Warren., ed. Film and Television Music: A Guide to Books, Articles, and Composer Interviews Scarecrow Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-8108-7686-6

Stoppe, Sebastian, ed. Film in concert: film scores and their relation to classical concert music. Glückstadt: Verlag Werner Hülsbusch, 2014. ISBN 978-3-86488060-5

Stubblevine, Donald J. Cinema Sheet Music: a Comprehensive Listing of Published Film Music, from Squaw Man (1914) to Batman (1989). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1991. ISBN 0-89950-569-4

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

External links[edit]

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

Filmmusicsite (filmmusicsite.com)

Filmtracks (filmtracks.com)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

MovieCues (moviecues.com)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Tracksounds (tracksounds.com)

(French) Cinezik.org : french website about film music

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film

Education

International School for Film Score Composition and Production

[hide] v t e

Filmmaking

Development

Film treatment scriptment Step outline Screenplay process Spec Script Film Adaptation Hook Option Film budgeting Film finance pitch Green-light

Pre-production

Script breakdown process Storyboard Casting Rehearsal Production board production strip Day Out of Days Production schedule Shooting schedule one-liner

Production

Film crew Cinematic techniques Cinematography Principal photography Videography Shooting script Film inventory report Daily call sheet Production report Dailies (rushes) Daily production report Daily progress report Daily editor log Sound report Cost report

Post-production

Film editing Re-recording Sync sound Soundtrack Music Special effects sound visual Negative cost

Distribution

Film distributor Film release wide limited delayed Roadshow

Related

Film Box office Filmography Guerrilla filmmaking

Categories: Film scoresAlbum types

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Puzzle: TV StudioPuzzle: TV Studio

How Film Composers Work

by Diane Dannenfeldt

15

Page 1 2 3 4

Film composers provide a movie's musical accompaniment. Composer Howard Shore, left, celebrates with director David Cronenberg, right, at the director's screening of "The Fly."

© Michael Buckner/Getty Images

If a few scratchy chords conjure up the image of a shower, a knife and an unsuspecting young woman, or a bar of menacing music brings to mind a cruising underwater shark, you've responded to the work of a film composer. In movies like "Psycho" (1960) and "Jaws" (1975), the film composer has provided a musical accompaniment that blends almost unconsciously with speech and action to create a mood [source: Internet Movie Database].

But as invisible as these musical motifs seem at the time, the successful ones can linger long after the credits roll, triggering memories of bold adventure (the "Star Wars" series), ephermeral magic (the "Harry Potter" series) or impending doom and salvation ("The Lord of the Rings" trilogy). Creating the magic is all part of a day's work for film music composers like Danny Elfman, Howard Shore or John Williams.

There are plenty of tough decisions and lots of hard work behind creating an apparently seamless film score. Agreement must be reached with the movie director on the concept. Music must be written to match the tone of a specific scene of the film -- and to exactly the right length. Scores must be fleshed out, musicians hired and recordings made of their sessions. And everything must be completed on a tight deadline.

What are the responsibilities of the movie composer in all this? What is it like to actually work as a movie music composer? And how does someone become a composer? Keep reading to find out.

COMPOSERS' CHOICE

If film composers had to choose, what would they pick as their favorite movie scores? Variety magazine put that question to 12 composers. Here are some of their choices:

"Once upon a Time in the West" (Ennio Morricone)

"ET," "Star Wars" and "Jurassic Park" (John Williams)

"Psycho" (Bernard Herrmann)

"Poltergeist" and "The Omen" (Jerry Goldsmith)

"Lord of the Rings" (Howard Shore)

[source: Variety Magazine].

Print Citation & Date Feedback Page 1 2 3 4 5

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Top 10 Film Composers of All Time

Quinton Figueroa's picture

By Quinton Figueroa | August 11th, 2012

0 Comments

Throughout my life there have been certain film scores that find a way into my soul and live within me. The individuals who create these musical stories are the ones that I hold in highest esteem.

Hans Zimmer doing what he does best (owning)

I've always been a big fan of film music. It's hard to find a type of music that is as open, emotional and dramatic as film music. From peaceful strings to uplifting brass, film music really covers the full musical spectrum.

Listed below you will find 10 film composers which I find to be geniuses. These people all create such unique, beautiful music that just takes you away into another world.

Honerable Mention: Nobuo Uematsu

Nobuo Uematsu is just amazing. When I was younger I played nearly every Final Fantasy video game and I remember just sitting at home each day listening to the music. Nobuo Uematsu is one of the most talented composers there is. If he were to ever start scoring music for film I am certain that he would be at the top of the game.

Notable Works

Final Fantasy video game series (1987 - present)

10. Joe Hisaishi

I came across Joe Hisaishi while watching the movie Spirited Away. I was blown away by how carefully crafted these pieces were. If I was more familiar with Hisaishi's music he would probably be higher on my list.

Notable Works

Spirited Away (2001)

9. Philip Glass

Philip Glass has a very simple, melodic style which I find enjoyable. He isn't one to use lots of instruments and lots of flare. He more or less find a very good melody and then repeats it over and over to let it slowly take over you. What a great composer.

Notable Works

Koyaanisqatsi (1983)

Kundun (1997)

The Hours (2002)

8. Danny Elfman

Danny Elfman is a name that most people will probably recognize -- he certainly is not new to creating great music. There are many great memorable scores that he has created throughout his career.

Notable Works

Beetlejuice (1988)

Batman (1989)

Edward Scissorhands (1990)

Spider Man (2002)

Hulk (2003)

The Kingdom (2007)

7. Harry Gregson-Williams

I think Harry Gregson-Williams is a very under-rated composer. His music is simply magical. I think he is one of the best composers at creating that climax point in music where everything fits together and builds together to bring you to a place of pure ecstasy. His work on Narnia is simply amazing and let's not forget the memorable Metal Gear Solid 2 theme.

Notable Works

Shrek (2001)

Metal Gear Solid 2 (video game) (2001)

Kingdom of Heaven (2005)

The Chronicles of Narnia (2008)

6. Howard Shore

Howard Shore is a brilliant composer and his talent culminated into perfection with the score for Lord of the Rings. The music is enchanting, touching and timeless.

Notable Works

Big (1988)

Mrs. Doubtfire (1993)

Seven (1995)

Lord of the Rings (2001)

The Aviator (2004)

5. James Newton Howard

James Newton Howard is another under-rated composer. I think JNH is capable of producing some of the most powerful melodies imaginable. His work on the little-known film Lady in the Water was incredible. He is definitely one of my favorite composers of all time.

Notable Works

The Fugitive (1993)

The Sixth Sense (1999)

Signs (2002)

The Village (2004)

Batman Begins (2005)

King Kong (2005)

Lady in the Water (2006)

The Dark Knight (2008)

4. Alan Menken

Alan Menken is simply amazing -- back to back Oscar wins has got to tell you something. His work on The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast is some of the best musical material ever created. This guy knows how to write.

Notable Works

The Little Mermaid (1989)

Beauty and the Beast (1991)

Aladdin (1992)

Pocahontas (1995)

The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996)

Hercules (1997)

3. James Horner

And now we reach the top 3. Of course James Horner has to be part of this list. His work on Titanic is some of the best music ever created. But it doesn't stop there. Horner has a plethora of film scores which are simply amazing. The Land Before Time, Casper, Braveheart and Avatar are more examples of how talented and gifted James Horner really is.

Notable Works

Commando (1985)

Aliens (1986)

The Land Before Time (1988)

Willow (1988)

Glory (1989)

Apollo 13 (1995)

Casper (1995)

Braveheart (1995)

Titanic (1997)

A Beautiful Mind (2001)

Avatar (2009)

2. Hans Zimmer

Hans Zimmer is the number 2 film composer. When I heard the song "Time" from Inception I was taken into a new world. This song really brings you into another world. Hans Zimmer is one of the most decorated composers in all of music. With a portfolio like The Lion King, The Rock, Gladiator, Pirates of the Caribbean, The Dark Knight and Inception it is easy to see why Hans Zimmer is one of the greatest composers of all time. This guy knows how to tell a story with music, and he does it time and time again.

Notable Works

The Lion King (1994)

Crimson Tide (1995)

The Rock (1996)

Gladiator (2000)

Black Hawk Down (2001)

Pearl Harbor (2001)

The Last Samurai (2003)

Pirates of the Caribbean (2003)

King Arthur (2004)

Madagascar (2005)

Batman Begins (2005)

The Da Vinci Code (2006)

The Dark Knight (2008)

Inception (2010)

1. John Williams

And of course, the number 1 film composer of all time is the great John Williams. Williams is on a level of his own. Nobody can touch the memorable moments that John Williams has created through his music. Williams is capable of scoring many different styles of music while always keeping things interesting and engaging. His music from Jaws was original. His music from Star Wars brought the movie into a whole new galaxy. His music from Superman was breathtaking. His music from Indiana Jones was fun and exciting. His music from E.T. was sad and uplifting. His music from Home Alone was touching. With Hook John Williams took us to a far away land, with Jurassic Park he brought us into the past. With Schindler's List Williams showed us that he is completely capable of scoring a more simple, emotional score through the use of solo violin. His list of music just goes on and on. The guy is a genius and hands down the best film composer of all time. The music industry would not be what it is today without the scores of John Williams and the childhood and lives of many would be lacking without the memorable brands that Williams has created through music. Bravo!

Notable Works

Jaws (1975)

Star Wars (1977)

Superman (1978)

Indiana Jones (1981)

E.T. (1982)

Home Alone (1990)

Hook (1991)

Jurassic Park (1993)

Schindler's List (1993)

Saving Private Ryan (1998)

The Patriot (2000)

Harry Potter (2001)

Interview with John Beal

Excerpts from

"The Modern Hollywood Composer"

Simon Barber, The Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts

Interview with Composer John Beal

John Beal, President and Senior Composer of Reeltime Music Inc. started his career with musical acts such as Olivia Newton-John, Gladys Knight and Johnny Mathis. He has scored numerous films and hit television shows, including Eight Is Enough, Vegas, Chicago Story, Happy Days, Laverne & Shirley and Goodtime Girls. Also specializing in original composition for theatrical marketing with over 2000 major studio campaigns, John’s trailer music has been heard by more moviegoers than most feature film composers. He is trusted by virtually every major director and studio to write original scores to help sell their films. His list of credits includes campaigns for 30 of the top grossing films of all time, such as JFK, Hunt for Red October, True Lies, In The Line of Fire, Forrest Gump, Patriot Games, Aladdin, Mask of Zorro, Black Rain, Ghost, The Matrix, and hundreds more. The success of films to which he has contributed marketing music is literally measured in billions of dollars. Website is

> 1. What do you feel are the most important pre-requisite tools for the film composer in contemporary Hollywood? i.e: Music education, flexibility, orchestration, thematic skill, business acumen, contacts?

While it is fairly easy to impress with the first burst of enthusiastic and passionate composition, the continually compressing schedules of Hollywood film and television post production require a composer to have all possible education in theme and variation, counterpoint and canon forms. A good sense of serial composition can also be helpful. These alone though, assuming the gift of compositional talent, are not going to brace a composer for the incredible and daunting task of networking with directors and understanding every possible level of the business of music.

> 2. How important is the understanding and implementation of new technology in your art? And has it been a catalyst in developing your sound over the years?

The shift from using a pencil for writing and a hand calculator for figuring synchronization to full blown midi sequencer with audio editing has been explosive. It is essential for a film composer to have a working knowledge of every tool possible. Especially those which can save time in the process. The ability to create and manipulate sounds to be featured or composited within other acoustic sounds has broadened the palette of colors for a composer in a very exciting manner. The challenge is to do this with the same respect for music and its integration with film as before.

> 3. Do you utilize certain musical conventions in your work which you know that the audience will already have in their 'emotional vocabulary?' Do you consciously represent more abstract elements of the picture such as place or time?

Those of us not at the top of the hiring list are often called upon to write in less time than it takes to conceive, so the use of common devices to elicit emotional response can be a requirement, not an option. One has to write that which will work with the broadest audience. It is not a bad thing. The challenge is to use the device, but write it in a fresh manner. Elements such as place and time are critical to me, but the ultimate decision whether or not to reference these elements lies with the director or producer. Many composers ignore all sense of time and place and merely write from the same palette, using a standard "bag of tricks." It works for them and often works for the film in a manner which soars above the more "on the nose" approach.

> 4. Have you ever heard a score and known that you could have gotten more from the film?

Often. And then I reflect on all the extraneous things which could have pulled the composer away from their original objective: too many bosses, too little time and - always - too little budget. There are, admittedly, many films scored by people who have no clue about film, story arcs or subtext. They would never understand the term "neurosis provoking moment" in an actor's vocabulary and have no concept of seamlessly integrating score with film.

> 5. Have you ever been asked to save a film?

Yes. But obviously not so much on A-budget films! And I fear attempts at resuscitation often fail. However, there are scenes in nearly every movie which contain a performance poorly rendered, or are missing a critical angle in editing, or with production noise distractions which cannot be removed. Most often, the scene is one which makes tremendous sense on paper, but doesn't translate to the camera.

> 6. How much influence do other people have over your score? i.e: producers, directors, music supervisors, the dubbing mixer!! etc...

When I started working trailers with Andy Kuehn (the godfather of contemporary trailers), we would spot these mini-films the same as a full-length theatrical presentation and discuss where, when, and how the music would affect the project. Recently, the trend is to start with a completely "temped" film, thus boxing in all original thought. Then every person you named, plus their girlfriends and secretaries seem to have some need to input their desires. I admire those composers who can remain true to their sense of that which the film needs, rather than that which is being asked. IF we can retain a professional standard, guiding all those random ideas toward what ultimately serves the film, all are better off.

> 7. Are there noticeable trends in the Industry concerning 'how' and 'where' music is used in a film?

Aside from the action/adventure category, I am seeing more films with space where there used to be underscore. A well edited film with good performances should work on its own, without music. Music can then enhance that magic with another dimension. But I do see many films with awkward moments or unclear emotive close-ups which could benefit from a thoughtfully created underscore. Then there is the SOUNDTRACK - a term previously used to describe all the music, but now pertaining primarily to SONGS. I love a good pop film with great contemporary songs. I also laugh tremendously at older films which used this approach. Songs are a great way to cross market and cross-collateralize the cost of a film. They are also a great way to kill its universal appeal over many decades.

> 8. Do you feel that there are any detrimental effects on the art of Film Scoring in terms of how the Industry operates today?

Who can write an hour of music in days with the same quality as one who takes weeks or months? While executive salaries and actor fees are escalating, music budgets are declining. With the advent of digital film editing, films are placed in post production closer to the release date, allowing less time for creative writing. These are not healthy trends for the craft or the art form.

> 9. Do you feel that there is a current trend in Hollywood towards composers having 'signature sounds' ? Do you feel that this approach encourages the 'serviceable' film score?

When I was studying film scoring, it was considered mandatory that a composer learn to write well in virtually any style which came in the door. No one could feel comfortable writing in just one manner, with one palette. It is one of the reasons I enjoy opportunities to write for movie previews: One week it could be ballet, the next a zydeco piece. One week synthesizers, the next a huge orchestra. Now, essentially because creativity has become subservient to time, money and marketing, film makers want to grab a "sound" off the shelf and know exactly what they're going to have. This is a result of marketing requirements for "temp" tracks in every film. It is also a result of sadly inadequate training in the film schools of our universities and, forgive me, lack of imagination. Yes, this creates a homogenous style of film music, especially in the orchestration of large ensemble scores.

On the other hand, each of us will eventually find that particular style or form which we do the most effectively. It would be nice to then be able to explore its greatest possibilities.

> 10. Why do some composers get all the jobs?

There are many reasons, some tangible, some not. First there is the obvious quality and grace of their writing, followed by the ability to put all principal players at complete and total ease in an area of great concern and mystery. Then there is an industry wide theory that anyone connected with one hit film will cause the next film to be a hit; what some derisively call the "bean counter" mentality. Also, there is a very small group of composers represented by two agencies which are "plugged in" to the development of films and sew up deals before others know of their existence. But it is a truism that nearly every film director or producer begins with "Get me John Williams" or James Horner or Jerry Goldsmith or Danny Elfman. The sad thing is that many of these same directors and producers think composers are interchangeable. "Can't get me John Williams? Then get me Randy Newman." Both are amazing musical geniuses, with completely different musical voices.

> 11. In your opinion, what makes a great score? And can you give me an example?

I am one who believes a score should be integrated with the same grace as lighting and depth of focus by a camera, and often as unnoticeable. Unless it is providing a required signal or fanfare, we should feel the music, perhaps noticing it as a part of the visual and aural dialogue itself, but never being quite sure when it started or how it developed. By the end, we should have been carried along with the music just as effectively as with the other ingredients, not walking away saying "WOW, WHAT A SCORE!" any more than remembering a film because it had great explosions.

The intimate films scored by James Newton Howard, the older treasures from Jerry Goldsmith, the little ensemble breathing scores from John Williams all fascinate me. To write so little, yet do it so effectively is the challenge.

> 12. What do you see as the future of the Hollywood Film Composer?

My fear is that it will become a rich man's business. Royalties are under attack and the cost of living and doing business in the film community is escalating faster than the potential to earn. Many arrive, work for little or nothing and leave in defeat when they cannot amortize their careers. Unfortunately, they lower the bar for fee structure and work under time conditions no one would previously attempt. This snowballs as more filmmakers attempt to find more "fresh meat" among the under employed and, in many cases, under qualified.

So.. like many societies, we arrive at a class system which has eliminated the middle.

On the other hand, there is incredible talent and skill in some of these young composers. They are also better educated in the area of business. This may end up serving the entire film composing community well.

I remain optimistic.

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Billboard/THR Film & TV Music Conference: 'Rush' Composers Discuss High-Octane Soundtrack

10:49 PM PDT 10/29/2013 by Justino Aguila, Billboard

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Hans Zimmer and the team behind the adrenaline-fueled film's score reveal what it took to create the music for one of the most successful independent releases this year.

A version of this story first appeared on Billboard.com.

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How 'Rush' Stars Chris Hemsworth and Daniel Bruhl Researched Their Real-Life Counterparts

Hans Zimmer Did 'Unspeakable Things' to a Train in Creating 'The Lone Ranger' Score

The team behind the score of the adrenaline-fueled, car-racing film Rush revealed what it took to create the soundtrack behind one of the most successful independent releases this year.

In a case study discussion around the music of Rush, moderated by former Billboard West Coast bureau chief Melinda Newman, composers Hans Zimmer, Lorne Balfe and music producer Peter Asher gave a behind-the-scenes look at the $25 million domestic box-office indie hit.

Hans said he could not emphasize enough how much the collaborative process was made easier by everyone's passion, including Ron Howard, who directed the film about the heated mid-'70s Formula One rivalry between drivers James Hunt and Niki Lauda.

"What could be better in life than hanging with your mates … hanging out with a director completely into telling a great story," Zimmer said during the panel, part of the two-day Billboard/Hollywood Reporter Film & TV Conference that kicked off Tuesday (Oct. 29). "Ron did not need to do an indie movie."

PHOTOS: 'Rush' London Premiere: Chris Hemsworth, Olivia Wilde Hit the Red Carpet

Zimmer composed the score for the film, which also features music by David Bowie, Steve Winwood and Mud.

All three panelists remarked that Howard's ability to keep cool and focused even when the composers improvised was essential in helping to develop the unique sound of the film.

"Scoring things too tight makes it suffocating," said Balfe. "The great thing is that with Ron we can improvise and it stays."

While the film's composers spent a considerable amount of time researching the music of the '70s, the goal wasn't necessarily to create a 1976 rock score. Instead, it was more important to "embrace the spirit of the recklessness," Zimmer said, adding that the score is very much guitar driven, which helps the film achieve high emotional points.

STORY: Will 'Rush' Turn Grand Prix Racing Into America's New NASCAR?

Understanding each other, Zimmer said, was as integral as trusting each other. For example, Asher "doesn't work like a music supervisor. [He works more] like a record producer … and is very much involved with artists."

One of the film's most illuminating qualities is that it shifts stylistically, which is unorthodox, Zimmer says, adding that the movement of music in just two seconds can evoke a completely different emotion.

"Moviemaking is about everyone rolling up their sleeves and getting their hands dirty," Hans said.

When asked what he loved most about making the movie, composer Zimmer said, "It wasn't The Lone Ranger," referring to the film starring Johnny Depp that bombed at the box office this year. The crowd roared in laughter.

The Billboard/Hollywood Reporter Film & TV Music Conference continues on Oct. 30. A full schedule of panels can be viewed here.

Arnold Turner

HANS ZIMMER

RON HOWARD

BILLBOARD/THR FILM & TV MUSIC CONFERENCE

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Joel Goffin, Joel, Christian, Goffin, Film Composer, Film, Composer, Audio, Design, Unique, Music, For, Film, Home, Hollywood, Asheville, Film Composer, Looking, Production, Film, Audio, Sound Mixer, Music, Supervisor, Imdb, internet movie, data, base, dark, bluestone, symphonics, Sebastian Goffin, Black Gold, Jeta Amata, Tom Sizemore, Eric Roberts, Hans, Remote, Pro, Zimmer, Harry Gregson Williams, Productions, Gofraine, Swartz, Inale, Virtual, World, Instrument, s, who is, Intense, NC, Asheville, Asheville NC, Composer, North Carolina, North Carolina Composer, NC Film, Festival, Award,s, Harvard Connection, how to write music for film, scoring tips, film composer, film composer, film, compozer, film compser, looking for a film composer, film composer needed, how to score a film, film how, soundtrack net, soundtrack, . , net, oscar, winning, film, composer, award winning composer, i need a composer, i need a composer for my film, bluestone, bluestone symphonics, symphonic, virtual instruments, LA scoring strings, Project Sam, Symphobia, best software for film composers, best virtual orchestration software, L, A, S, S, LASS, best orchestration software, software orchestra, orchestration software,

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So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

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So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

  online:

  resources:

  online store:

  print:

  company:

So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

  online:

  resources:

  online store:

  print:

  company:

So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

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So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

  online:

  resources:

  online store:

  print:

  company:

So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

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So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

The Online Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Music Appreciation

search the site:

Browse

Our CDs

  online:

  resources:

  online store:

  print:

  company:

So You Want to be a Film Composer?

by Lukas Kendall

Man alive, the number of people who want to be film composers these days... it used to be that when people wanted to be in music, they wanted to be a great pianist or a Broadway songwriter. Then, everybody wanted to be in a band. Now, everyone's already in a band, and they want to make money by scoring films.

I think it's great that film music is being taken seriously to the point where so many people want to get into it. But like screenwriting or professional athletics, this is a field where the available slots are few, and the hopefuls are many. To that end, here's some helpful advice, and we plan much more of this in FSM (the magazine) in 1998.

To start, two tips, from my own personal observations. If you want to be a film composer:

1) Don't try to be John Williams.

So many people, especially young people, want to be film composers because they love big, sweeping, beautiful orchestral romantic music--like the kind John Williams writes! This is a problem in that this is only a tiny fragment of what it is filmmakers are looking for in film score. Keep in mind, I am not talking about John Williams per se-- most directors would give their left nut for him--but the kind of melodic, symphonic score he has done on a specific type of fantasy film.

For one thing, John Williams is around 500 times smarter than most anyone reading this, and he can do these types of scores and make them great, instead of bloated and cliched. More practically, only a specific type of movie that requires a Star Wars type of score. They're aren't many of them made, and when they are made, they are so expensive that, if John Williams himself isn't hired, James Horner will be. Or Jerry Goldsmith. Or Bruce Broughton. Or around 40 other guys who have tons more experience than you.

If you really want to be a film composer, you have to divorce yourself from your 12 year-old dream to score the next Star Wars movie, and come up with the kind of sound that will make filmmakers come to you. If you write traditional, symphonic music, you will without a doubt end up working on a lot of lousy, juvenile children's films. But if you can come up with something sophisticated—something dramatic but subtle and contemporary— you can be "typecast" into good movies. Think Thomas Newman, Howard Shore, Rachel Portman, Graeme Revell, Elliot Goldenthal and the newest example, Mychael Danna. These composers write music that isn't necessarily flashy, but gets them consistently employed on high quality product. And from there you'll have a lot more options than you do now.

2) Put down the jar of paste.

Not to dwell too much on this, but I've met a few aspiring film composers whose personalities are about as fun as a Jehovah's witness at a Halloween party. Almost without exception, the big-time working film composers are also intelligent, likable, trustworthy and fun to be around. They aren't necessarily "party" people, but they radiate a certain confidence and charm that says, "Hire me." They are sensitive, but they don't burden you with their problems.

If you really want to do this, you can't be an arrogant, nerdy dullard. Film composing is highly competitive. (First prize: the oldsmobile. Second prize: steak knives. Third prize: you're fired.) You can't afford to be a creep.

Free Advice from Top Agent-- RICHARD KRAFT Now for something useful for a change. This was a brief set of questions I put to agent Richard Kraft in August, 1994, for issue #48. Richard represents Danny Elfman, Jerry Goldsmith, Marc Shaiman, Basil Poledouris, John Barry, Elmer Bernstein, Rachel Portman, and several others, so he knows what he's talking about.

One note: since this conversation, the film scoring landscape has changed with regard to independent films, in that there is once again a thriving independent market and many of today's most promising composers came out of it-- such as Mychael Danna, John Ottman, and Stephen Endelman. But other than this I don't think anything substantial has changed. Here's Richard:

***

1. How tough is it to break into film scoring?

Extremely tough, because there are so few movies made. There are probably six major studios and they make maybe a dozen movies each, so that's not a large pool of films. The number of independent movies being made is substantially less than it was even ten years ago, when there were Cannon Films and New World Pictures and Dino DeLaurentiis, those were a great breeding ground for up and coming talent. But now it's like major films and that's it. Television is not the great minor leagues it once was. If you look at John Williams and Jerry Goldsmith and people like that who cut their teeth in TV, it's not the same type of music being written anymore, there aren't all those great shows like Twilight Zone. Plus, there's a kind of snobbery that exists between features and television that I don't think existed back in the '60s.

2. How can I meet various important people to get myself work?

I would skip "various important people" and start with people in a similar "up and coming" spot. Instead of trying to get to Steven Spielberg, I would try to get to the next Steven Spielberg by working on student films, AFI films, UCLA and USC student films and forging relationships with the people who will be the next generation of biggies.

3. Is moving to L.A. or another production center (like New York) really important?

Essential. If you want to be in the car making business, you have to be in Detroit. You've got to be where the industry is.

4. What's the best kind of demo tape?

One based on knowledge of the project you're sending it out for. If you're going up for a horror movie, there are very few directors who could listen to great music for a love story and make the leap of faith that you would be appropriate for a horror movie. I would make the tape as specific to the project as possible.

5. Is it worth it to hire live players for a demo?

The better the tape could be, the better it is. It's best to do the "A" version of what you're doing. If you're trying to achieve an orchestral score, use live players. A problem with demos is that the ambition of the music sometimes exceeds the production abilities; it's hard to hear and fill in the blanks of what it's supposed to sound like. You should only have music that sounds like the real thing you're trying to achieve.

6. When should I start contacting agents?

The time to have an agent is when an agent wants you, when the agent feels he can parlay where you currently are in your career into something bigger. Agents are not set up to break talent in their first one or two movies. It's when there's a small movie that has some interest behind it--a Sex, Lies and Videotape, Drugstore Cowboy or Dead Calm--that an agent can take you to the next step.

7. How important is a traditional musical education and being classically trained?

It entirely depends on the type of composer you would like to be. The more varied your background the better, because film composing is about being a chameleon, being able to write in different styles to meet the needs of the movie. So the richer your background the better, but I don't think anybody has ever hired a composer based on looking at their degree. I think of the majority of currently successful film composers, their backgrounds are not conservatory training but life music training. Marc Shaiman was Bette Midler's musical director, Danny Elfman had the band Oingo Boingo, Stewart Copeland was from The Police, James Newton Howard was a session player and record producer, and so on.

8. How can I work on becoming a film composer while simultaneously supporting myself on a job?

There are two trains of thought. One is, have a job that has nothing to do with your career, just to make money. That way you can just do the job and leave it behind at the end of the day and concentrate on your film scoring career. Or, the best job is like being an orchestrator or a copyist, where it puts you in the situation where you meet people who are working on movies, and you can be a fly on the wall at scoring sessions and absorb all kinds of knowledge and information.

9. How many aspiring film composers are there?

Endless. Nowadays, almost all the major music schools have film scoring programs and the interest in being a film composer is at an all time high [cue Octopussy]. Besides writing hit songs, film composing is about the only lucrative job for somebody who composes music for a living.

10. Is it worth it to do projects for next to nothing just to get experience?

Absolutely. It's essential, as a matter of fact. The first few movies you do should be viewed like obtaining tuition to go to college. It's a learning process for you and having done three movies where you've lost money in the process puts you so many steps ahead of having no movies.

11. Should I try to develop the ability to sound like other composers, or work on developing a unique sound of my own?

I don't think it's an either/or. You definitely need to develop your own voice, but also to have an understanding of what other people might want. I wouldn't work on doing an Elmer Bernstein imitation, but if I was doing a movie where they said, "We want the feel of To Kill a Mockingbird," I'd need to have an understanding of what that meant so as to interpret it in my own voice.

12. Is it helpful to meet other film composers, established or otherwise?

It's helpful to commiserate and to have a support group, but--and again it's not black or white--if I had a choice I'd rather know five directors than five film composers.

13. Are there any sure-fire ways to piss off people so much that nobody will ever hire me?

Well... never say never, but I think a lot of talented people's careers haven't developed as far as they should based on them pissing people off.

14. Are there any specific pathetic stories of aspiring film composers you know about?

Specific pathetic stories? How about I give you a positive story: There was a composer several years ago who was in college and wanted to get a job in Hollywood. So what he did was he videotaped the main title sequences of all the Quinn-Martin TV shows, wrote new themes for all of them, got his college orchestra to play his new themes and sent the tape to Quinn-Martin Productions. And of course they're going to look at their own main titles, and they got such a kick out of it, they gave him a chance to write one cue for one episode of some show. They liked it and he ended up on a series. That's a positive story. The pathetic stories all tend to fall into the exact same category: People give up. It's hard. It's hard enough to be a composer, but at the beginning of your career, it's equally important to be a salesman, and that's not really a skill composers have developed. It's like selling any product, it's pounding the pavement and knocking on a lot of doors. It's hard to take the rejection so I think the reason most people don't make it isn't from a lack of talent, because I know there are a lot of really talented people out there, it's because they give up. They don't get this instant gratification and it's so hard to take the rejection that they don't keep it up.

15. What specific piece of advice would you have for getting work?

Put yourself in the shoes of the person who's hiring you. If you were making a movie, and you got a call from a composer, what would you want to hear? Get out of the brain of a composer and into the brain of the person hiring you. The people who tend to get those first few jobs are the people who make it easy for the person to hire them--by being so willing to do demos, by being available, and by being persistent, because most people aren't. It's a very delicate balance between being persistent and being pushy. Learning to finesse that, that's a real skill to work on. And this is my number one analogy: Every skill that one uses to get a date is the exact same skill one uses to get a job. Both involve seduction, it's identical. If you're a man and wanting to ask a woman out for a first date, how do you do that? How do you present yourself physically, what things do you say, how do you connect with the other person, what's the other person looking for? It's the exact same thing when you're trying to present yourself as a composer. It's a relationship you're trying to get involved in.

16. Realistically, if I'm an average aspiring film composer, what are my chances?

I don't think there's such a thing as an average one. There are so many factors. Are you talented, are you smart, do you have a good personality, do you know how to work with filmmakers? Someone who has all those ducks in a row has incredibly better odds than a social misfit who writes crappy music. I would say that if you have your act together, write really good music, and have the financial ability and determination to stick it out, the odds are you'll make it, because there are so few people who meet those requirements.

Film score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film, forming part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects. The score comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1]

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[2] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score.

Scores are written by one or more composers , under the guidance of the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians - most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists - and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the film it accompanies. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[3]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by programming sophisticated music composition software.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Writing

1.3 Orchestration

1.4 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 Historical notes

4 Composers

4.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

4.2 Other award nominees and winners

4.3 Box office champions

5 Production music

6 See also

6.1 Film music organizations

6.2 Film music review sites

6.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

6.4 Journals

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

[edit]Process of creation

[edit]Spotting

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly[6] and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended. Also, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

Less frequently, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

[edit]Writing

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Logic Pro, Cubase or Protools.[9] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

[edit]Orchestration

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" in to instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing then to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

[edit]Recording

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra, the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated exclusively to recording), and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[10]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

[edit]Elements of a film score

[edit]Temp tracks

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[11] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[12] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[13] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[14] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore)[15] and The Bourne Identity (John Powell).[16]

[edit]Structure

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[17] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. A example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details). Other examples are Italian composers Stefano Lentini and oscar's winner Ennio Morricone. [18] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[19] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

[edit]Source music

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[20] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter". Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

[edit]Historical notes

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[21] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of film music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 - music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer. Nevertheless fully developed original scores were quite rare in the silent movie era. When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used musical scores in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[22] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[22] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958), Psycho (1960), and The Birds (1963). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

A full film score widely regarded[by whom?][citation needed]as the first made by a popular artist came in 1973 with the film Pat Garret and Billy the Kid, by Bob Dylan. However the album received very little critical acclaim. This had not been done before in popular film history as featured bands had films written around their music such as in the animation Yellow Submarine with music by The Beatles.

[edit]Composers

[edit]Academy Award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Lou Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Earle H. Hagen

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (1 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Marsha Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (1 win)

Kris Kristofferson

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Muir Mathieson

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [1]

[edit]Other award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar. Winners of an Award appear in bold.

John Altman (BAFTA)

Armand Amar (IFMCA)

Benny Andersson (BAFTA)

Oscar Araujo (IFMCA)

Craig Armstrong (Globe, BAFTA, Grammy)

David Arnold (BAFTA, Grammy)

Angelo Badalamenti (Globe, BAFTA, Grammy)

Lionel Bart (Globe)

Jeff Beal (Emmy)

Christophe Beck (Emmy)

Richard Bellis (Emmy)

Howard Blake (BAFTA)

Terence Blanchard (Globe)

Pieter Bourke (Globe)

Jon Brion (Grammy)

Michael Brook (Globe)

Stephen Bruton (BAFTA)

Velton Ray Bunch (Emmy)

T-Bone Burnett (BAFTA)

Carter Burwell (Globe, BAFTA)

Sean Callery (Emmy)

Jay Chattaway (Emmy)

Eric Clapton (Grammy)

Michel Colombier (Globe, Grammy)

Ry Cooder (BAFTA)

Stewart Copeland (Globe)

Bruno Coulais (BAFTA)

Daft Punk (IFMCA)

Burkhard Dallwitz (Globe)

Carl Davis (BAFTA, Grammy)

Don Davis (Emmy)

Paco de Lucía (BAFTA)

Marius de Vries (BAFTA)

Vince DiCola (Grammy)

James Di Pasquale (Emmy)

Neil Diamond (Globe, Grammy)

Ramin Djawadi (Grammy)

Jim Dooley (Emmy)

Clint Eastwood (Globe, Grammy)

Fred Ebb (Globe)

Randy Edelman (Globe, BAFTA)

Ilan Eshkeri (IFMCA)

Harold Faltermeyer (Globe)

Allyn Ferguson (Emmy)

David Foster (Grammy)

Charles Fox (Globe, Grammy)

Benjamin Frankel (Globe)

Dominic Frontiere (Globe)

Peter Gabriel (Globe, Grammy)

Brian Gascoigne (BAFTA)

Lisa Gerrard (Globe, Grammy)

Barry Gibb (Globe)

Nick Gold (BAFTA)

Billy Goldenberg (Emmy)

Howard Goodall (Emmy)

Miles Goodman (Globe)

Ron Goodwin (Globe)

Gerald Gouriet (Globe)

Jonny Greenwood (BAFTA, Grammy)

Harry Gregson-Williams (Globe, BAFTA)

Guy Gross (BAFTA)

Christopher Gunning (BAFTA)

James Hannigan (IFMCA)

Richard Hartley (Emmy)

Knut Avenstroup Haugen (IFMCA)

Joe Hisaishi (IFMCA)

Lee Holdridge (Emmy)

Junior Homrich (BAFTA)

Nellee Hooper (BAFTA)

Nicholas Hooper (Grammy)

Richard Horowitz (Globe)

Dick Hyman (BAFTA)

Joe Jackson (Grammy)

Chaz Jankel (BAFTA)

Carl Johnson (Emmy)

Adrian Johnston (Emmy)

Trevor Jones (Globe, BAFTA)

Michael Kamen (Globe, Grammy)

John Kander (Globe, BAFTA)

Rolfe Kent (Globe)

Wojciech Kilar (BAFTA)

Kaki King (Globe)

Kitaro (Globe)

Mark Knopfler (BAFTA, Grammy)

Krzysztof Komeda (Globe)

Abel Korzeniowski (Globe, IFMCA)

Henry Krieger (BAFTA)

Robert Lane (IFMCA)

Andrew Lockington (IFMCA)

Joseph LoDuca (Emmy)

John Lurie (Grammy)

Nuno Malo (IFMCA)

Johnny Mandel (Globe)

Chuck Mangione (Globe)

Hummie Mann (Emmy)

Clint Mansell (Globe)

David Mansfield (Globe)

Wynton Marsalis (Grammy)

Peter Martin (BAFTA)

Cliff Martinez (Grammy)

Dennis McCarthy (Emmy)

Bear McCreary (IFMCA)

Joel McNeely (Emmy)

Gil Melle (Globe)

Dudley Moore (Globe)

Trevor Morris (Emmy)

Stanley Myers (BAFTA)

Lennie Niehaus (BAFTA)

Julian Nott (IFMCA)

Michael Nyman (Globe, BAFTA)

Mike Oldfield (Globe)

Riz Ortolani (Globe)

Karen Orzolek (Globe)

Larry Paxton (Globe)

James Peterson (IFMCA)

Jean-Claude Petit (BAFTA)

Barrington Pheloung (BAFTA)

Basil Poledouris (Emmy)

Jocelyn Pook (Globe)

Mike Post (Emmy)

Zbigniew Preisner (Globe)

Alan Price (Globe)

Harold Rome (Globe)

David Rose (Emmy)

Brett Rosenberg (IFMCA)

Arthur B. Rubinstein (Emmy)

Pete Rugolo (Emmy)

The RZA (BAFTA)

Arturo Sandoval (Grammy)

David Schwartz (Grammy)

Edward Shearmur (Emmy)

Kevin Shields (BAFTA)

David Shire (BAFTA)

Carlo Siliotto (Globe)

Carly Simon (BAFTA)

Morton Stevens (Emmy)

Marc Streitenfeld (BAFTA)

Marty Stuart (Globe)

Mikis Theodorakis (Globe)

Yann Tiersen (BAFTA)

Pinar Toprak (IFMCA)

Ernest Troost (Emmy)

Bjorn Ulvaeus (BAFTA)

Eddie Vedder (Globe)

Joseph Vitarelli (IFMCA)

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden (Emmy)

Don Was (BAFTA)

Norman Whitfield (Grammy)

Kristin Wilkinson (Globe)

Nancy Wilson (BAFTA)

Christopher Young (Globe)

Geoff Zanelli (Emmy)

Sources: HFPA Award Search [2], BAFTA Awards Database [3], Primetime Emmy Award Database [4], Grammy Awards Archive [5], IFMCA Awards Archive [6]

[edit]Box office champions

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

Klaus Badelt – Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003)

Tyler Bates – 300 (2007)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

George S. Clinton – Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Steve Jablonsky – Transformers (2007), Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen (2009)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Christopher Lennertz – Alvin and the Chipmunks (2007)

Mark Mancina – Twister (1996)

John Ottman – X2: X-Men United (2003)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

William Ross – Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [7], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [8], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [9]

[edit]Production music

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Associated Production Music and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers — they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was setup by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[23] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[24] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[25]

[edit]See also

film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

Musivisual Language

[edit]Film music organizations

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

[edit]Film music review sites

Filmtracks.com

SoundtrackNet

[edit]Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

Varèse Sarabande

[edit]Journals

Film Score Monthly

[edit]References

^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

^ Film scoring

^ The Creators

^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0825673085

^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

^ The Bourne Identity

^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

^ http://www.trell.org/wagner/starwars.html

^ About The Film Music Society

^ The Functions of Film Music

^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 9780851625140.[citation needed]

^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

[edit]Further reading

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

[edit]External links

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemanotes (cinemanotes.com)

cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

Film Music Theory (filmsound.org)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net )

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film

[hide]v · d · eFilmmaking

Development

Film finance • Film budgeting

Pre-production

Film treatment • Scriptment • Screenplay • Breaking down the script • Script breakdown • Step outline • Storyboard • Production board • Production strip • Day Out of Days • Production schedule • One liner schedule • Shooting schedule

Production

Cinematography • Principal photography • Videography • Shooting script • Film inventory report • Daily call sheet • Production report • Daily production report • Daily progress report • Daily editor log • Sound report • Cost report

Post-production

Film editing • Re-recording • Sync sound • Soundtrack • Music • Special effect (Sound effect • Visual effects) • Negative cost

Distribution

Distribution • Film release (Wide • Limited • Delayed) • Roadshow

Others

Filmography • Guerrilla filmmaking

See also

Film • Film crew • Filmmaking • Hook (filmmaking) • Pitch (filmmaking) • Post-production • Pre-production • Screenwriting • Spec script

Categories: Film scores | Album types

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List of film score composers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of notable people who compose or have composed soundtrack music for films (i.e. film scores), television, video games and radio.

Contents [hide]

1 A

2 B

3 C

4 D

5 E

6 F

7 G

8 H

9 I

10 J

11 K

12 L

13 M

14 N

15 O

16 P

17 Q

18 R

19 S

20 T

21 U

22 V

23 W

24 X

25 Y

26 Z

27 References

A[edit]

Rod Abernethy — Star Trek: Encounters, Wheelman, Rage

Amanda Abizaid — The 13th Alley

J. J. Abrams (born 1966) — Felicity, Lost, Alias, Fringe[1]

André Abujamra (born 1965) — Durval Discos, Carandiru[2]

Bojan Adamič (1912–1995) — Valter Brani Sarajevo[3]

John Adams (born 1947) — Matter of Heart[4]

Barry Adamson (born 1958) — Lost Highway, Delusion

Richard Addinsell (1904–1977) — Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Dangerous Moonlight, Beau Brummell[5]

John Addison (1920–1988) — Tom Jones, A Bridge Too Far[6]

Larry Adler (1914–2001) — Genevieve[7]

Mirwais Ahmadzaï (born 1960) — No Body Is Perfect, Pardonnez-moi

Air (formed 1995) — The Virgin Suicides[8]

Masami Akita (Merzbow; formed 1979) — The Dead Man 2: Return of the Dead Man, Lost Paradise, Le séquence des barres parallèles

Yasushi Akutagawa (1925–1989) — Gate of Hell, Fires on the Plain, Mount Hakkoda[9]

Ismo Alanko (born 1960) — Taivaan tulet, Remontti

Mazhar Alanson (born 1950) — Everything's Gonna Be Great[10]

Damon Albarn (born 1968) — Ordinary Decent Criminal, Ravenous, 101 Reykjavík[11]

Amadhia Albee (born 1970) — Kaze, Ghost Warrior[12]

Bob Alcivar (born 1938) — Butterflies Are Free, The Crazy World of Julius Vrooder, Hysterical

Dan Andrei Aldea (born 1950) — Nunta de piatră

Edesio Alejandro (born 1958) — Life Is to Whistle, Suite Habana, Un rey en la Habana[13]

Alessandro Alessandroni (born 1925) — Any Gun Can Play

Jeff Alexander (1910–1989) — The Tender Trap, Jailhouse Rock, Kid Galahad[14]

Hugo Alfvén (1872–1960) — The Girl of Solbakken, Mans kvinna

Hossein Alizadeh (born 1951) — Gabbeh, A Time for Drunken Horses, Turtles Can Fly

Herb Alpert (born 1935) — Trabanten

John Altman (born 1949) — The MatchMaker, Shadowlands, Little Voice[15]

Javier Álvarez (born 1956) — Cronos

William Alwyn (1905–1985) — The Fallen Idol, Odd Man Out, Fires Were Started

Masamichi Amano (born 1957) — Battle Royale, Giant Robo

W. D. Amaradeva (born 1927) — Adata Vediya Heta Hondai, Delovak Athara, Getawarayo, Sikuru Tharuwa

Alejandro Amenábar (born 1972) — The Sea Inside, The Others

Daniele Amfitheatrof (1901–1983) — Lassie Come Home, Song of the South, Guest Wife

David Amram (born 1930) — The Manchurian Candidate, Splendor in the Grass

Anamanaguchi (formed 2004) — Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: The Game

Anand Raj Anand — Dishayen, Masti, Masoom

Anastasia (formed 1990) — Before the Rain

Kai Normann Andersen (1900–1967) — Præsten i Vejlby, Hotel Paradis, Odds 777, Nøddebo Præstegård

Murray C. Anderson — In My Country, Boy called Twist

Benny Andersson (born 1946) — Mio in the Land of Faraway, Songs from the Second Floor, You, the Living

Michael Andrews (born 1959) — Donnie Darko, Orange County, Me and You and Everyone We Know, Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story

Jurriaan Andriessen (1925–1996) — De aanslag, Dorp aan de rivier, De Dans van de Reiger

George Antheil (1900–1959) — In a Lonely Place, Ballet Mécanique

Paul Antonelli (born 1959) — China O'Brien, Out of the Dark

Yoshino Aoki (born 1971) — Breath of Fire III, Breath of Fire IV

Louis Applebaum (1918–2000) — The Story of G.I. Joe

Archive (formed 1994) — Michel Vaillant, Sep

Takanori Arisawa (1951–2005) — Sailor Moon, Digimon

David Arkenstone (born 1952) — Robot Wars, World of Warcraft: Cataclysm

Harold Arlen (1905–1986) — The Wizard of Oz

Craig Armstrong (born 1959) — Romeo + Juliet, Ray, Moulin Rouge!

Leo Arnaud (1904–1991) — The Kissing Bandit, Apache Rose, The F.B.I.

David Arnold (born 1962) — Independence Day, Quantum of Solace, Little Britain

Sir Malcolm Arnold (1921–2006) — The Bridge on the River Kwai, Hobson's Choice, Whistle Down the Wind, The Belles of St Trinian's

Len Arran (born 1961) — Soulboy, The Truth About Love

Jorge Arriagada (born 1943) — Time Regained, Klimt, Salvador Allende

Claude Arrieu (1903–1990) — Les Gueux au paradis, Marchands de rien, Le Tombeur

Art Zoyd (formed 1968) — new scores for Nosferatu, Metropolis, Häxan

Eduard Artemyev (born 1937) — Solaris, Stalker, Burnt by the Sun, The Barber of Siberia

Joseph Arthur (born 1971) — Hell's Kitchen, Deliver Us from Evil

Philippe Arthuys (1928–2010) — The Glass Cage, The Carabineers, Le trou

Jeff Arwady — The Wintress, The Model Father

Noriyuki Asakura (born 1954) — Onimusha, Way of the Samurai, Tenchu

Assassin (formed 1985) — La Haine

Edwin Astley (1922–1998) — The Saint, Danger Man, Civilisation, The Adventures of Robin Hood

Richard Attree — Horizon, The Demon Headmaster, Watt on Earth

Georges Auric (1899–1983) — La Belle et la bete, Bonjour Tristesse, Lola Montès, The Wages of Fear, The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Eric Avery (born 1965) — Sex with Strangers, Soul Kiss

Max Avery Lichtenstein — Tarnation, Puzzlehead

Roy Ayers (born 1940) — Coffy

Albert Ayler (1936–1970) — New York Eye and Ear Control

Mark Ayres — Doctor Who

Alexandre Azaria (born 1967) — Transporter 2, Transporter 3, Astérix et les Vikings

Lex de Azevedo — The Swan Princess, Where the Red Fern Grows

Charles Aznavour (born 1924) — Le cercle vicieux, L'île du bout du monde, C'est pas moi, c'est l'autre

B[edit]

Luis Bacalov (born 1933) — Django, Il Postino, The Gospel According to St. Matthew, Storm Rider

Burt Bacharach (born 1928) — Casino Royale, What's New Pussycat, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Lost Horizon

Pierre Bachelet (1944–2005) — Emmanuelle, Les Bronzés font du ski, Story of O, Emmanuelle 5

Michael Bacon (born 1949) — Loverboy, The Last Good Time, King Gimp

Angelo Badalamenti (born 1937) — Twin Peaks, Blue Velvet, The City of Lost Children, Mulholland Drive

Klaus Badelt (born 1967) — Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, Equilibrium, Wu ji

Paul Baillargeon (born 1944) — Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise

Tadeusz Baird (1928-1981) — Lotna, Ludzie z pociagu, Pasazerka

Constantin Bakaleinikoff (1896–1966) — Higher and Higher

Mischa Bakaleinikoff (1890–1960) — Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, 20 Million Miles to Earth, It Came from Beneath the Sea

Buddy Baker (1918–2002) — The Fox and the Hound, The Apple Dumpling Gang, Napoleon and Samantha

Alexander Bălănescu (born 1954) — Tabló, Il partigiano Johnny, Dem Himmel ganz nah

Iain Ballamy (born 1964) — MirrorMask

Glen Ballard (born 1953) — Navy SEALs, The Polar Express, Clubland

Richard Band (born 1953) — Re-Animator, Puppet Master, Stargate SG-1

Thomas Bangalter (born 1975) — Irréversible

Don Banks (1923–1980) — Die, Monster, Die!, The Reptile, Rasputin, the Mad Monk

Claus Bantzer (born 1942) — Cherry Blossoms, Drachenfutter, Männer...

Lesley Barber (born 1968) — You Can Count on Me, Mansfield Park, Little Bear

Gato Barbieri (born 1934) — Last Tango in Paris

Blixa Bargeld (born 1959) — To Have & to Hold, Jonas in the Desert, Recycled

Mister Bark (born 1985) — Objective Beauty, L'aimante

James Edward Barker — Psych 9, The Drought, The Vanishment

Warren Barker (1923–2006) — Bewitched

Andrew Barnabas (born 1973) — MediEvil, Primal

Erran Baron Cohen (born 1968) — Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, Brüno, Da Ali G Show

Nathan Barr (born 1973) — Cabin Fever, Hostel, True Blood

Alejandro Gutiérrez del Barrio (1895–1964) — Pachamama, Bendita seas, Los Peores del barrio

Bebe Barron (1925–2008) — Forbidden Planet

Louis Barron (1920–1989) — Forbidden Planet

John Barry (1933–2011) — Goldfinger, You Only Live Twice, Out of Africa, Midnight Cowboy

Steve Bartek (born 1952) — Novocaine, Romy and Michele's High School Reunion, Desperate Housewives

Dee Barton (1937–2001) — High Plains Drifter, Play Misty for Me, Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, Death Screams

Stephen Barton (born 1982) — Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, The Six Wives of Henry Lefay

Jules Bass (born 1935) — The Wacky World of Mother Goose, The Wind in the Willows

George Bassman (1914–1997) — A Day at the Races, Middle of the Night, Producers' Showcase

Tyler Bates — 300, Watchmen, Sucker Punch, The Devil's Rejects

Hubert Bath (1883–1945) — Tudor Rose, A Yank at Oxford, Millions Like Us

Mark Batson — Bad Boys II, Beauty Shop, War

Mike Batt (born 1949) — Caravans, Watership Down, The Dreamstone, Keep the Aspidistra Flying

Julián Bautista (1901–1961) — La Dama del millón, Café Cantante, La maestrita de los obreros

Arnold Bax (1883–1953) — Oliver Twist, Malta, G. C.

Les Baxter (1922–1996) — Wild in the Streets, Dr. Goldfoot and the Girl Bombs, The Dunwich Horror, Black Sunday

Stephen Baysted — GTR 2 – FIA GT Racing Game, GT Legends

Jeff Beal (born 1963) — Monk, Pollock

John Beal (born 1947) — Vega$, The Funhouse, Eight Is Enough, Happy Days, Terror in the Aisles

Robin Beanland (born 1968) — Conker's Bad Fur Day, Conker: Live and Reloaded

Guy Béart (born 1930) — Girl and the River, Manon des Sources, Une souris chez les hommes

Bobby Beausoleil (born 1947) — Lucifer Rising

Giuseppe Becce (1877–1973) — The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Der letzte Mann, Tiefland

Beck (born 1970) — Scott Pilgrim vs. the World

Christophe Beck (born 1972) — Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Elektra, The Pink Panther, Waiting for "Superman"

Jeff Beck (born 1944) — Frankie's House

David Bell (born 1954) — Star Trek: Enterprise, Murder, She Wrote

Belle & Sebastian (formed 1996) — Storytelling

Andrew Belling — Wizards, Starchaser: The Legend of Orin, Hangar 18

Richard Bellis — It, Heart of the Storm

Marco Beltrami (born 1966) — Scream, The Hurt Locker, I, Robot, 3:10 to Yuma

Arthur Benjamin (1893–1960) — The Man Who Knew Too Much, An Ideal Husband, Above Us the Waves, Fire Down Below

Richard Rodney Bennett (1936–2012) — Murder on the Orient Express, Far from the Madding Crowd, Four Weddings and a Funeral

David Bergeaud (born 1968) — Prince Valiant, Ratchet & Clank, The Outer Limits

Irving Berlin (1888–1989) — Top Hat, Holiday Inn, Easter Parade

James Bernard (1925–2001) — Horror of Dracula, Taste the Blood of Dracula, The Devil Rides Out, The Curse of Frankenstein

Charles Bernstein (born 1950) — A Nightmare on Elm Street, Cujo, White Lightning

Elmer Bernstein (1922–2004) — The Ten Commandments, The Magnificent Seven, To Kill a Mockingbird, Far from Heaven

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990) — On the Waterfront

Adam Berry — South Park, Balto II: Wolf Quest, Kim Possible

The Besnard Lakes (formed 2003) — Sympathy for Delicious

Peter Best (born 1943) — "Crocodile" Dundee, Doing Time for Patsy Cline, The Adventures of Barry McKenzie

Harry Betts (born 1922) — Black Mama, White Mama, The Fantastic Plastic Machine

Vishal Bhardwaj (born 1960) — The Blue Umbrella, Omkara, Godmother

Amin Bhatia (born 1961) — Iron Eagle II, Queer as Folk, The Zack Files

Vanraj Bhatia (born 1927) — Jaya Ganga, Ankur, Manthan, Junoon

Christian Biegai (born 1974) — Eagle vs Shark, Whistle

Biosphere (born 1962) — Eternal Stars, Insomnia, Man with a Movie Camera

Magnus Birgersson — Mirror's Edge

Joseph Bishara (born 1970) — 11-11-11, The Conjuring, Dark Skies, Insidious

Anil Biswas (1914–2003) — Kismet, Aurat, Journey Beyond Three Seas

Bruno Bizarro (born 1979) — A Vida Privada de Salazar, O Último Tesouro, Substantia

Ragnar Bjerkreim (born 1958) — Kamilla and the Thief

Björk (born 1965) — Dancer in the Dark, Drawing Restraint 9

Stanley Black (1913–2002) — Laughter in Paradise, Summer Holiday, The Young Ones

Richard Blackford (born 1954) — House of Harmony, The Shell Seekers

Howard Blake (born 1938) — The Bear, The Duellists, Flash Gordon, The Snowman

Art Blakey (1919–1990) — Des femmes disparaissent, Man Outside, Stop Driving Us Crazy

Terence Blanchard (born 1962) — Inside Man, Malcolm X, Clockers, Sugar Hill

Jamie Blanks — Storm Warning, Long Weekend

Teddy Blass (born 1984) — Byoukimon, Chain Shooter, Fortune's Prime

Arthur Bliss (1891–1975) — Things to Come, Men of Two Worlds, Seven Waves Away

Blue Öyster Cult (formed 1967) — Bad Channels

Len Blum — East End Hustle

Armando Bó (1914–1981) — Fuego, Una Mariposa en la noche, La Leona

Wes Boatman — Guiding Light, The Banger Sisters, As the World Turns

Michael Boddicker (born 1953) — The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension, White Water Summer, The Adventures of Milo and Otis

Ed Bogas — Fritz the Cat, Heavy Traffic, Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (and Don't Come Back!!)

Claude Bolling (born 1930) — Borsalino, California Suite, Daisy Town

Bertrand Bonello (born 1968) — The Pornographer, De la guerre, House of Tolerance

Bernardo Bonezzi (born 1964) — Law of Desire, Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, Nobody Will Speak of Us When We're Dead

Luiz Bonfá (1922–2001) — Black Orpheus

Fred Bongusto (born 1935) — Malicious, Fantozzi contro tutti, Superfantozzi

R C Boral (1903–1982) — Mahobbat Ke Aansu, Dhoop Chhaon, Swami Vivekanand

Simon Boswell (born 1956) — Santa Sangre, Dust Devil, Tin Man

Martin Böttcher (born 1927) — Winnetou, Derrick, Das schwarze Schaf

Frédéric Botton (1937–2008) — Hunting and Gathering

Roddy Bottum (born 1963) — Adam & Steve, What Goes Up, Kabluey

Ned Bouhalassa (born 1962) — Fries with That?, 15/Love

Pierre Boulez (born 1925) — La symphonie mécanique, Le soleil des eaux

Pieter Bourke — The Insider, Ali

David Bowie (born 1947) — Labyrinth, The Buddha of Suburbia, Omikron: The Nomad Soul

Scott Bradley (1891–1977) — Tom and Jerry, Droopy, Barney Bear

Steven Bramson — The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, NCIS, The Nine

Glenn Branca (born 1948) — The Belly of an Architect

Otto Brandenburg (1934–2007) — Villa Vennely

Angelo Branduardi (born 1950) — Momo

Stephen Bray (born 1956) — Who's That Girl, Psycho III

Michael Breckenridge — June Cabin, The Briefcase, Bloodletting: Life, Death and Health Care

Buddy Bregman (born 1930) — The Delicate Delinquent, Five Guns West, Guns, Girls, and Gangsters

Goran Bregović (born 1950) — Time of the Gypsies, Underground

Joseph Carl Breil (1870–1926) — The Birth of a Nation, Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth

Willem Breuker (1944–2010) — De illusionist, De IJssalon, Het teken van het beest

Philip Brigham — Road to Salina, The Adventures of Pete & Pete

Jon Brion (born 1963) — Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

Benjamin Britten(1913–1976) — Night Mail

Jeff Britting (born 1957) — Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life

Broadcast (formed 1995) — Berberian Sound Studio

Timothy Brock (born 1963) — new music for silent films Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans, Faust', Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis

Michael Brook (born 1951) — An Inconvenient Truth, Into the Wild

Eric Brosius — System Shock 2, Thief: The Dark Project, Guitar Hero

Dirk Brossé (born 1960) — Daens, When the Light Comes, A Peasant's Psalm

Bruce Broughton (born 1945) — Silverado, Lost in Space, Young Sherlock Holmes

Leo Brouwer (born 1939) — Like Water for Chocolate, La última cena, CSI: NY

Russell Brower — World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King, Joint Operations: Typhoon Rising, Diablo III

Bill Brown (born 1969) — Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six, Return to Castle Wolfenstein

James Brown (1933–2006) — Black Caesar, Slaughter's Big Rip-Off

Dave Brubeck (1920–2012) — Mr. Broadway, This Is America, Charlie Brown, Ordeal by Innocence

George Bruns (1914–1983) — Sleeping Beauty, The Jungle Book, Robin Hood

Joanna Bruzdowicz (born 1943) — Vagabond, Jacquot de Nantes

Gavin Bryars (born 1943) — A Song of Love, Central Bazaar, Smert v Pensne ili nash Chekhov

BT (born 1971) — Go, The Fast and the Furious, Monster, Stealth

Chico Buarque (born 1944) — Garota De Ipanema, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, Os Saltimbancos Trapalhões

David Buckley (born 1976) — Blood Creek, The Forbidden Kingdom, From Paris with Love

Paul Buckmaster (born 1946) — 12 Monkeys, Son of Dracula, Out-of-Sync, Most Wanted, The Rainbow Warrior

Harold Budd (born 1936) — Mysterious Skin

Roy Budd (1947–1993) — Get Carter, The Carey Treatment, The Sea Wolves, Who Dares Wins

Peter Buffett (born 1958) — The Tillamook Treasure, For the Next 7 Generations, Sky Dancers

Bun Bun — Breath of Fire, Metal Slug 1st Mission, Mega Man 3

Roman Bunka (born 1951) — Paul Bowles - Halbmond, ¿Bin ich schön?

Velton Ray Bunch — Magnum, P.I., JAG, Nash Bridges

Geoffrey Burgon (1941–2010) — Brideshead Revisited, Monty Python's Life of Brian, The Chronicles of Narnia

Rahul Dev Burman (1939–1994) — Teesri Manzil, Padosan, Baharon Ke Sapne

Sachin Dev Burman (1906–1975) — Baazi, Shabnam, Pyaasa

J. J. Burnel (born 1952) — Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo

Justin Burnett (born 1973) — SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Confrontation, SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Fireteam Bravo 2, Syphon Filter: Logan's Shadow

T-Bone Burnett (born 1948) — O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Walk the Line, Don't Come Knocking

Ralph Burns (1922–2001) — Lenny, All That Jazz, Star 80

Carter Burwell (born 1954) — Fargo, Being John Malkovich, Blood Simple, True Grit, Miller's Crossing

David Buttolph (1902–1982) — Maverick, Kiss of Death, The Virginian

Joseph Byrd (born 1937) — Lions Love, Health, The Ghost Dance

David Byrne (born 1952) — The Last Emperor, Young Adam, Big Love

C[edit]

John Cacavas (born 1930) — Kojak, Horror Express, The Bionic Woman

John Cage (1912–1992) — Dreams That Money Can Buy, Works of Calder

Peter Calandra — Jellysmoke, Unknown Soldier

Jesús Calderón (born 1976) — Dos Hombres y un Motor, Tin Can Heart, Las Bellas Durmientes

John Cale (born 1942) — American Psycho, I Shot Andy Warhol, Process

Cali (born 1968) — J'ai oublié de te dire

Sean Callery (born 1964) — 24, Homeland, La Femme Nikita

Gérard Calvi (born 1922) — Asterix the Gaul, Asterix and Cleopatra, The Twelve Tasks of Asterix

Pino Calvi (1930–1989) — Senza Rete

Pedro Camacho (born 1979) — Audiosurf, A Vampyre Story, Ghost Pirates of Vooju Island

Francisco Canaro (1888–1964) — He nacido en Buenos Aires, Explosivo 008, Con la música en el alma

Paul Cantelon (born 1959) — The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, W., The Other Boleyn Girl

Claudio Capponi (born 1959) — Jane Eyre, My House in Umbria

David Carbonara — Mad Men, Fast Food Fast Women, The Guru

Gerard Carbonara (1886–1959) — The Kansan, Stagecoach

Sam Cardon — The Work and the Glory, Mystic India, The Assignment

Wendy Carlos (born 1939) — A Clockwork Orange, Tron, The Shining

Larry Carlton (born 1948) — Hill Street Blues, Against All Odds

John Carpenter (born 1948) — Halloween, The Fog, Escape from New York

Pete Carpenter (1914–1987) — Bewitched, Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C., The Andy Griffith Show

Hans Carste (1909–1971) — Tagesschau, Im schwarzen Rößl, Frühling in Berlin

Benny Carter (1907–2003) — A Man Called Adam, Buck and the Preacher, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour

Gaylord Carter (1905–2000) — Little Lord Fauntleroy, Directed by John Ford

Kristopher Carter (born 1972) — Batman Beyond, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Young Justice

Doreen Carwithen (1922–2003) — Harvest from the Wilderness, Boys in Brown, Mantrap

Tristram Cary (1925–2008) — The Ladykillers, Quatermass and The Pit, The Boy Who Stole a Million

Carles Cases (born 1958) — Caresses, Eloïse's Lover, Darkness

Johnny Cash (1932–2003) — I Walk the Line, Little Fauss and Big Halsey

Ronald Cass (1923–2006) — Summer Holiday, The Young Ones

Patrick Cassidy

Teddy Castellucci (born 1965) — The Wedding Singer, Big Daddy, Little Nicky

Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895–1968) — The Loves of Carmen, Time Out of Mind

Brian Castillo (born 1968) — Debbie Does Damnation, Children of Chernobyl, Scratch Merchants

Nick Cave (born 1957) — Ghosts... of the Civil Dead, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert, The Road

Ryan Cayabyab (born 1954) — Kahapon, May Dalawang Bata, Misis Mo, Misis Ko, Azucena

Sapan Chakraborty — Shurer akashe, 36 Ghante, Maayer dibyi

Chakri (born 1974) — Satyam, Chukkallo Chandrudu, Jai Bolo Telangana

Frankie Chan (born 1955) — The Prodigal Son, Chungking Express, Fallen Angels

Chan Kwong-wing (born 1967) — Infernal Affairs, The Warlords, The Storm Riders

François-Eudes Chanfrault (born 1974) — Haute Tension, Inside, Donkey Punch

Charlie Chaplin (1889–1977) — Modern Times, Limelight, City Lights, The Gold Rush, A Countess from Hong Kong

Benoît Charest (born 1964) — The Triplets of Belleville, Adam's Wall, Polytechnique

Ken Chastain (born 1964) — M@d About, Invention

Stuart Chatwood (born 1969) — Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, Prince of Persia: Warrior Within, Prince of Persia: The Two Thrones

Jay Chattaway (born 1946) — Maniac, Missing in Action, Star Trek: The Next Generation

Matthieu Chedid (born 1971) — Tell No One, Un monstre à Paris

Yekaterina Chemberdzhi (born 1960) — Frau Fährt, Mann Schläft - Zeitreisen: Die Gegenwart, Rauchzeichen, Du Hast Gesagt, Dass Du Mich Liebst

The Chemical Brothers (formed 1991) — Hanna

Yury G. Chernavsky (born 1947) — Investigation Held by Kolobki, Sezon chudes, Vyshe radugi

Don Cherry (1936–1995) — The Holy Mountain

Paul Chihara (born 1938) — Death Race 2000, The Bad News Bears Go to Japan, The Darker Side of Terror

Ghulam Ahmed Chishti (1905–1994) — Sohni Mahival, Deen-o-Dunya, Shukriya

Chitragupta (1917–1991) — Bhabi, Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo, 'Oonche Log, Sansar

Salil Chowdhury (1922–1995) — Do Bigha Zamin, Chhoti Si Baat, Doorathu Idhi Muzhakkam

Sandeep Chowta — Ninne Pelladutha, Shanti Shanti Shanti, Kaun

Jamie Christopherson — Onimusha: Dawn of Dreams, Bionic Commando, Lost Planet

Toby Chu (born 1977) — The Riches, Covert Affairs, Domino

Frank Churchill (1901–1942) — Bambi, Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, Dumbo

Suzanne Ciani (born 1946) — The Incredible Shrinking Woman, Rainbow's Children, One Life to Live

Alessandro Cicognini (1906–1995) — Umberto D., The Last Judgement, It Started in Naples

Grzegorz Ciechowski (1957–2001) — The Hexer, Schloß Pompon Rouge, Stan Strachu

The Cinematic Orchestra (formed 1997) — The Crimson Wing: Mystery of the Flamingos, new score for Man with a Movie Camera

Stelvio Cipriani (born 1937) — The Anonymous Venetian, Concorde Affaire '79, Twitch of the Death Nerve

Julien Civange — Roberto Succo, Looking for Jimmy, Choses secrètes

Dolores Claman (born 1927) — Hockey Night in Canada, The Man Who Wanted to Live Forever, Captain Apache

Clannad (formed 1970) — Robin of Sherwood, The Angel and the Soldier Boy, The Natural World: Atlantic Realm

James Kenelm Clarke (born 1941) — All These People, About Anglia, Got It Made

Malcolm Clarke (1943–2003) — Earthshock, Dimension X, The Sea Devils

Stanley Clarke (born 1951) — The Transporter, A Man Called Hawk, Soul Food

Alf Clausen (born 1941) — The Simpsons, Moonlighting, ALF

Climax Golden Twins (formed 1993) — Session 9, The Mangler Reborn, The Dark Chronicles, Chained

George S. Clinton (born 1947) — Austin Powers, The Astronaut's Wife, Wild Things, Mortal Kombat

Charlie Clouser(born 1963) — Saw, Numb3rs, The Stepfather, Resident Evil: Extinction

Elia Cmiral (born 1950) — Ronin, Nash Bridges, Atlas Shrugged: Part I

Eric Coates (1886–1957) — The Dam Busters, The Selfish Giant[disambiguation needed], The Three Bears

Coil (formed 1982) — The Angelic Conversation, Blue, Gay Man's Guide to Safer Sex

Ozan Çolakoğlu (born 1972) — G.O.R.A., Organize İşler, Sınav

Ray Colcord — 227, Dinosaurs, The Devonsville Terror

Jude Cole — Truth or Consequences, N.M., Last Light, Woman Wanted

Lisa Coleman (born 1960) — Crossing Jordan, Heroes, Dangerous Minds

Cyril Collard (1957–1993) — Savage Nights

Anthony Vincent Collins (1893–1963) — Swiss Family Robinson, I Live in Grosvenor Square, Trent's Last Case

Phil Collins (born 1951) — Tarzan, Brother Bear

Michel Colombier (1939–2004) — The Golden Child, Une chambre en ville, Against All Odds

Juan J. Colomer (born 1966) — A Day Without a Mexican, A Letter to Rachel, Dark Honeymoon

Zebedy Colt (1929–2004) — The Story of Joanna, Manhole

Peter Connelly (born 1972) — Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness, Flesh Feast, Mass Destruction

Con Conrad (1891–1938) — The Gay Divorcee, Here’s to Romance, Palmy Days

Marius Constant (1925–2004) — The Twilight Zone, Le chemin de Damas, Tomorrow's World

Paul Constantinescu (1909–1963) — O noapte furtunoasa, Rasuna valea, La 'Moara cu noroc'

Bill Conti (born 1942) — Rocky, The Right Stuff, The Karate Kid

Ry Cooder (born 1947) — Johnny Handsome, Paris, Texas, Crossroads

Jason Cooper (born 1967) — From Within, Without Gorky

Ray Cooper (born 1945) — Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas

Stewart Copeland (born 1952) - Talk Radio, Wall Street, Highlander II: The Quickening

Aaron Copland (1900–1990) - Of Mice and Men, The North Star, The Heiress

Cecil Copping (1888–1966) - The Lost World, The Private Life of Helen of Troy, The Love Racket

Frank Cordell (1928–1980) - The Rebel, Ring of Bright Water, God Told Me To

John Corigliano (born 1938) - Altered States, Revolution, The Red Violin

Bruno Coulais (born 1954) - The Crimson Rivers, The Chorus, Coraline

Vladimir Cosma (born 1940) - The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob, La boum, Diva

Alec R. Costandinos (born 1944) - Trocadéro bleu citron, Caravane, Les derniers jours de la victime

Alexander Courage (1919–2008) - Star Trek: The Original Series, The Left Handed Gun, Day of the Outlaw

Crush 40 (formed 1997) - Sonic Adventure, Shadow the Hedgehog, Sonic Heroes

The Crystal Method (formed 1993) - N2O: Nitrous Oxide, London, X Games 3D: The Movie

Douglas J. Cuomo (born 1958) - Homicide: Life on the Street, Sex and the City, Crazy Love

Mike Curb (born 1944) - Skaterdater, The Wild Angels, The Born Losers

Hoyt Curtin (1922–2000) - The Flintstones, Jonny Quest, The Jetsons

Leah Curtis — Exitus Roma, To Rest in Peace

D[edit]

Juan d'Arienzo (1900–1976) — Melodías porteñas, Gente bien

Daft Punk (formed 1993) — Tron: Legacy

Ben Daglish (born 1966) — Gauntlet, Deflektor, The Last Ninja

V. Dakshinamoorthy (born 1919) — Nalla Thanka, Mizhikal Sakshi, Navalokam

Burkhard Dallwitz (born 1959) — The Truman Show, CrashBurn, The Way Back

Đặng Hữu Phúc (born 1953) — Thời xa vắng, Mùa ổi, Gate, gate, paragate

Britt Daniel (born 1971) — Stranger than Fiction

John Dankworth (1927–2010) — Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, Modesty Blaise, Tomorrow's World

Jeff Danna (born 1964) — The Boondock Saints, O, Resident Evil: Apocalypse

Mychael Danna (born 1958) — 8mm, The Ice Storm, Monsoon Wedding

Ken Darby (1909–1992) — Rancho Notorious, Meet Me After the Show, The Adventures of Jim Bowie

Mason Daring (born 1949) — Return of the Secaucus 7, The Brother from Another Planet, Eight Men Out

David Darling (born 1941) — Into the Deep: America, Whaling & the World, Kedma, Going Under

Samar Das (1929–2001) — Mukh O Mukhosh, Asiya, Dhirey Bahey Meghna

Peter Dasent — Meet the Feebles, Braindead, Heavenly Creatures

Vladimir Dashkevich (born 1934) — Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, Niotkuda s lyubovyu, ili Vesyolye pokhorony, Prodleniye roda

Evelyne Datl — The Adventures of Dudley the Dragon, The Big Comfy Couch, What's for Dinner?

Shaun Davey (born 1948) — Waking Ned, The Tailor of Panama, The Abduction Club

Iva Davies (born 1955) — Razorback, Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, The Incredible Journey of Mary Bryant

Peter Maxwell Davies (born 1934) — The Devils, The Boy Friend

Carl Davis (born 1936) — The French Lieutenant's Woman, Hollywood, new music for Intolerance

Don Davis (born 1957) — The Matrix, House on Haunted Hill, Behind Enemy Lines

Jonathan Davis (born 1971) — Queen of the Damned

Miles Davis (1926–1991) — Elevator to the Gallows, Siesta, Dingo

Guido De Angelis (born 1944) — Yor, the Hunter from the Future, Sandokan, Watch Out, We're Mad!

Maurizio De Angelis (born 1947) — Yor, the Hunter from the Future, Sandokan, Watch Out, We're Mad!

Mark De Gli Antoni — Cherish, Marie and Bruce, Into the Abyss

Francesco De Masi (1930–2005) — Arizona Colt, Private Vices, Public Pleasures, The New York Ripper

Tullio De Piscopo (born 1946) — L'arma, I guappi non si toccano, 32 dicembre

Frank De Vol (1911–1999) — Hush... Hush, Sweet Charlotte, The Flight of the Phoenix, What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?

Barry De Vorzon (born 1934) — Dillinger, The Warriors, Xanadu

Dan Deacon (born 1981) — Twixt, Hilvarenbeek

Dead Can Dance (formed 1981) — Moon Child, In the Presence of Mine Enemies, Ruth's Journey

Dick DeBenedictis (born 1937) — Perry Mason, Police Story, Columbo

John Debney (born 1956) — Cutthroat Island, The Passion of the Christ, Iron Man 2

Charles Deenen (born 1970) - Double Dragon, Xain'd Sleena, Zamzara

Deep Forest (formed 1992) - Strange Days, Le prince du Pacifique, Kusa no ran

Fabian Del Priore (born 1978) - Extreme Assault, X: Beyond the Frontier, UPIXO In Action: Mission in Snowdriftland

Jack Delano (1914–1997) - Los Peloteros

Georges Delerue (1925–1992) - Hiroshima mon amour, Jules and Jim, Contempt, The Last Metro

Jaime Delgado Aparicio (1943-1983) - El embajador y yo

Joe Delia - Bad Lieutenant, King of New York, Dangerous Game

Norman Dello Joio (1913–2008) - Air Power, The Smashing of the Reich, A Golden Prison: The Louvre

Julie Delpy (born 1969) - J'ai peur, j'ai mal, je meurs, 2 Days in Paris, The Countess

Milton DeLugg (born 1918) - Santa Claus Conquers the Martians, The Gong Show, Treasure Hunt

Éric Demarsan (born 1938) - Army of Shadows, Le Cercle rouge, Les Spécialistes

Eumir Deodato (born 1943) — Bossa Nova

Olivier Derivière (born 1978) — Alone in the Dark, Obscure, Phileas Fortune

Jean Derome (born 1955) — Passiflora, L'âge de braise, De ma fenêtre, sans maison...

Russ DeSalvo — Barbie Diaries

Alexandre Desplat (born 1961) — The Painted Veil, The King's Speech, Girl with a Pearl Earring, Lust, Caution

Paul Dessau (1894–1979) — Alice und ihre Feuerwehr, Stürme über dem Montblanc, Tarass Boulba

Adolph Deutsch (1897–1980) — The Maltese Falcon, Some Like It Hot, The Apartment

Stephen Deutsch (born 1945) — The Signalman, The History of Mr. Polly, Bye Bye Columbus

Deva (born 1950) — Aasai, Kushi, The Prince

Srikanth Deva — Kuththu, Puli Varudhu, Aattanayagann

DeVotchKa (formed 1997) — Little Miss Sunshine

Frédéric Devreese (born 1929) — Het Sacrament, Du bout des lèvres, La partie d'échecs

Sussan Deyhim — Turbulent, Rapture, Mahdokht

James Di Pasquale (born 1941) — McClain's Law, Armed and Dangerous, Rad

Neil Diamond (born 1941) — Jonathan Livingston Seagull, The Jazz Singer

Michelle DiBucci — Wendigo, Creepshow, Carrier

Vince DiCola — The Transformers: The Movie, Staying Alive, Rocky IV

Enrique Santos Discépolo (1901–1951) — Melodías porteñas, La vida es un tango, En la luz de una estrella

Ramin Djawadi (born 1974) — Prison Break, Iron Man, Game of Thrones

Lucia Dlugoszewski (1931–2000) — Guns of the Trees, Visual Variations on Noguchi

Julius Dobos (born 1976) — Europe Express, Thend, Black Strawberries

Robert E. Dolan (1908–1972) — Once Upon a Honeymoon, The Great Gatsby, The Man Who Understood Women

Thomas Dolby (born 1958) — Howard the Duck, Gothic, The Gate to the Mind's Eye

Klaus Doldinger (born 1936) — Das Boot, The NeverEnding Story, Negresco - Eine tödliche Affäre

Pino Donaggio (born 1941) — Don't Look Now, Carrie, Dressed to Kill

Walter Donaldson (1893–1947) — Glorifying the American Girl, The Great Ziegfeld, Panama Hattie

James Dooley (born 1976) — When a Stranger Calls, SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Combined Assault, Infamous

Steve Dorff (born 1949) — Spenser: For Hire, Murphy Brown, Just the Ten of Us

Pierre van Dormael (1952–2008) — Toto the Hero, The Eighth Day, Mr. Nobody

Paul Doucette (born 1972) — Shredderman Rules, Just Pray

Joel Douek — Shark Week, Discovery Atlas, The Wildest Dream

Patrick Doyle (born 1953) — Henry V, Hamlet, Sense and Sensibility, Frankenstein

Carmen Dragon (1914–1984) — At Gunpoint, Night into Tomorrow, Invasion of the Body Snatchers

Christopher Drake — Hellboy: Sword of Storms, Batman: Gotham Knight, Justice League: Doom

Robert Drasnin (born 1927) — Joe Forrester, CHiPs, Cinemania

Jojo Draven — Hell Asylum, Witches of the Caribbean, Ghost Month

Dennis Dreith (born 1948) — Purple People Eater, The Punisher, Gag

Mark Dresser (born 1952) — new music for the silent films The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Un Chien Andalou

Jorge Drexler (born 1964) — Retrato de mujer con hombre al fondo, Hermanas, The City of Your Final Destination

George Dreyfus (born 1928) — A Steam Train Passes, Rush, The Fringe Dwellers

Howard Drossin — Tom-Yum-Goong, The Man with the Iron Fists, Splatterhouse

Jack Curtis Dubowsky — Under One Roof, Redwoods, Rock Haven

John Du Prez (born 1946) — Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, Oxford Blues, A Fish Called Wanda

Anne Dudley (born 1956) — American History X, The Crying Game, The Full Monty

Antoine Duhamel (born 1925) — Pierrot le Fou, Week End

Charles Dumont (born 1929) — Les gourmandines, Trafic, Le commando des chauds lapins

Isaak Dunayevsky (1900–1955) — Circus, Jolly Fellows, Volga-Volga

Maksim Dunayevsky (born 1945) — d'Artagnan and Three Musketeers, Mary Poppins, Goodbye, The Witches Cave

Clay Duncan — Blade: The Series, The Grid, Fetch

Robert Duncan — Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Lie to Me, Castle

Trevor Duncan (1924–2005) — Little Red Monkey, The Long Haul

George Duning (1908–2000) — From Here to Eternity, The Devil at 4 O'Clock, Me and the Colonel

The Dust Brothers (formed 1985) — Fight Club

Jacques Dutronc (born 1943) — Antoine et Sébastien, Sale rêveur, Van Gogh

Frank Duval (born 1940) — Derrick, The Old Fox, Unsere schönsten Jahre

Jeff van Dyck (born 1969) — Rome: Total War, The Need for Speed, Sled Storm

Kiril Džajkovski — Dust, The Great Water, Bal-Can-Can

Dado Dzihan (born 1964) — Well Tempered Corpses, Sitting Ducks, Breaking and Entering

E[edit]

E.S. Posthumus (2000–2010) — numerous music for film trailers and TV

Brian Easdale (1909–1995) — Black Narcissus, The Red Shoes, Peeping Tom

Clint Eastwood (born 1931) — Mystic River, Million Dollar Baby, Flags of Our Fathers

Kyle Eastwood (born 1968) — Letters from Iwo Jima, Gran Torino, Invictus

Nicolas Economou (1953-1993) — Marianne and Juliane, Unerreichbare Nähe, Rosa Luxemburg

Randy Edelman (born 1947) — Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story, The Mask, Dragonheart

Greg Edmonson — King of the Hill, Firefly, Uncharted

Carl Edouarde (1876-1932) — Kismet, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Private Life of Helen of Troy

Ross Edwards (born 1943) — Phobia, Eternity, Paradise Road

Stefan Eichinger — Schätze der Welt - Erbe der Menschheit, Jeder Wind hat seine Reise, Drei Wege nach Samarkand

Philippe Eidel (born 1956) — Conte d'été, Un air de famille, Kadosh

Cliff Eidelman (born 1964) — Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, Free Willy 3: The Rescue

Christian Eigner (born 1971) — Blutrausch, Die Viertelliterklasse

Ludovico Einaudi (born 1955) — Fuori Dal Mondo, This Is England, The Intouchables

F. M. Einheit (born 1958) — Der Platz, Im Platz, Der Tag

Richard Einhorn (born 1952) — The Prowler, Sister, Sister, The Passion of Joan of Arc

Einstürzende Neubauten (formed 1980) — Berlin Babylon

Der Eisenrost — Tokyo Fist, Bullet Ballet, Gemini

Hanns Eisler (1898–1962) — Night and Fog, The Woman on the Beach

Element of Crime (formed 1985) — Robert Zimmermann wundert sich über die Liebe

Danny Elfman (born 1953) — Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Batman, Forbidden Zone

Jonathan Elias (born 1956) — Children of the Corn, Two Moon Junction, Pathfinder

Rachel Elkind-Tourre — The Shining

Boris Elkis — A Perfect Getaway, Bugged!, Streetwise

Duke Ellington (1899-1974) — Anatomy of a Murder, Paris Blues, Change of Mind

Dean Elliott — Fantastic Four, Fangface, Alvin and the Chipmunks

Jack Elliott (1927-2001) — The Comic, Support Your Local Gunfighter, The Jerk

Don Ellis (1934-1978) — The French Connection, The Seven-Ups, French Connection II

Warren Ellis (born 1965) — The Proposition, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, The Road

Albert Elms (1920-2009) — Man in a Suitcase, The Prisoner, The Champions

Elwood (born 1979) — Teräskolikkoarkku

Keith Emerson (born 1944) — Inferno, Nighthawks, Murder Rock

Jon English (born 1949) — Against the Wind, Touch and Go

Tobias Enhus — The Matrix: Path of Neo, Spider-Man 3

Jeremy Enigk (born 1974) — Dream With The Fishes, The United States of Leland

Brian Eno (born 1948) — The Lovely Bones, Sebastiane, For All Mankind

Roger Eno (born 1959) — For All Mankind

Enya (born 1961) — The Frog Prince, The Celts

Harry Escott (born 1976) — Hard Candy, The Road to Guantanamo, Shame

Ilan Eshkeri — Layer Cake, Ninja Assassin, Coriolanus

Juan García Esquivel (1928-2002) — Aventuras de Cucuruchito y Pinocho, Locura pasional, The Tall Man

Ray Evans (1915-2007) — Mister Ed, Tammy, Bonanza

Explosions in the Sky (formed 1999) — Prince Avalanche

F[edit]

Adam F (born 1972) — Ali G Indahouse

Bent Fabric (born 1924) — The Poet and the Little Mother, Death Comes at High Noon, Klown

Asser Fagerström (1912-1990) — Vastuu, People Not as Bad as They Seem

Brian Fahey (1919-2007) — Curse of Simba, The Plank, Rhubarb

Uwe Fahrenkrog-Petersen (born 1960) — All the Queen's Men, Igby Goes Down, Globi und der Schattenräuber

Sammy Fain (1902-1989) — Peter Pan, Calamity Jane, Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing

Percy Faith (1908-1976) — Tammy Tell Me True, The Virginian, The Oscar

Nima Fakhrara — Broadway Bound, The Courier, Gatchaman

Harold Faltermeyer (born 1952) — Top Gun, Beverly Hills Cop, Tango & Cash, The Running Man

David Fanshawe (1942-2010) — When the Boat Comes In, The Feathered Serpent, Flambards

Robert Farnon (1917-2005) — Maytime in Mayfair, Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N., It's a Wonderful World

Paul Farrer (born 1973) — Weakest Link, Dancing on Ice, The Krypton Factor

Toufic Farroukh — Ana El Awan, Phantom Beirut, Women Beyond Borders

Bruce Faulconer — Dragon Ball Z, Your House and Home, Bass Champs

Jeffrey Fayman — Open Water, co-founder and composer of Immediate Music

Eric Fenby (1906–1997) — Jamaica Inn, Song of Summer

George Fenton (born 1950) — Gandhi, The Company of Wolves, The Fisher King, Groundhog Day

Allyn Ferguson (1924-2010) — Barney Miller, Charlie's Angels, The Last Days of Patton

Jay Ferguson (born 1947) — A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child, The Office, NCIS: Los Angeles

Lorenzo Ferrero (born 1951) — Anemia

Paul Ferris (1941-1995) — The Blood Beast Terror, Witchfinder General, The Creeping Flesh

Nico Fidenco (born 1933) — Emanuelle nera, La via della prostituzione, Zombi Holocaust

Brad Fiedel (born 1951) — The Terminator, Fright Night, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, True Lies

Jerry Fielding (1922-1980) — The Nightcomers, The Bad News Bears, Demon Seed

Magnus Fiennes (born 1965) — Murphy's Law, Hustle, Death in Paradise

Mike Figgis (born 1948) — Leaving Las Vegas, One Night Stand, Timecode

Eveline Fischer (born 1969) — Donkey Kong Country, Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble!

Luboš Fišer (1935–1999) — Valerie and Her Week of Wonders, Oxen, Kral Ubu

Frank Fitzpatrick

Stephen Flaherty

Tom Flannery

Maurice Fleuret

Flo & Eddie

Adrian Foley, 8th Baron Foley

Tim Follin

Ari Folman

Robert Folk Ace Ventura When Nature Calls, There Be Dragons, Toy Soldiers, Police Academy

Troels Brun Folmann

Keith Forsey

Bruce Fowler

Charles Fox

Francis and the Lights — Robot & Frank

Jesús Franco

Massimiliano Frani

Christopher Franke (born 1953) — Babylon 5, Universal Soldier, What the Bleep Do We Know!?

Benjamin Frankel

Jason Frederick

Freur

Gerald Fried (born 1928) — Star Trek: The Original Series, Roots

Hugo Friedhofer

Bill Frisell

Fred Frith

Jürgen Fritz — Eine Frau für gewisse Stunden, Hard to Be a God

John Frizzell

Fabio Frizzi

Edgar Froese

Front Line Assembly (formed 1986) — Quake III Arena

Dominic Frontiere

Ben Frost (born 1980) — Sleeping Beauty, In Her Skin, Rokland

Hideyuki Fukasawa

Matt Furniss

Nathan Furst

Giovanni Fusco

G[edit]

Reeves Gabrels

Peter Gabriel (born 1950) — Birdy, The Last Temptation of Christ, Rabbit-Proof Fence

Serge Gainsbourg

Vincent Gallo

Martin Galway

Douglas Gamley

Jeet Ganguly

Gara Garayev

Anja Garbarek

Jan Garbarek

Antón García Abril (born 1933) — Tombs of the Blind Dead, Los santos inocentes

Russell Garcia

Dan Gardopée

Garish

Snuff Garrett

Mort Garson

Georges Garvarentz

Giorgio Gaslini (born 1929) — La Notte, Deep Red

Tony Gatlif (born 1948) — Vengo, Transylvania, Gadjo dilo

Mohammed Gauss

Marvin Gaye (1939–1984) — Trouble Man

Ron Geesin

Grant Geissman

Lisa Gerrard

Matthew Gerrard

George Gershwin

Irving Gertz

Ghantasala

Michael Giacchino

Michael Gibbs

Richard Gibbs

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Gary Gilbertson

Alan Gill

Terry Gilkyson

Alberto Ginastera

Daniel Giorgetti

Paul Giovanni (1933–1990) — The Wicker Man

Girls Against Boys (formed 1988) — Series 7: The Contenders

Lutz Glandien

Scott Glasgow

Philip Glass (born 1937) — Koyaanisqatsi, The Hours, Candyman, Powaqqatsi

Paul Glass

Patrick Gleeson

Evelyn Glennie

Nick Glennie-Smith

Goblin

Erik Godal

Vladimír Godár

Godiego (formed 1976) — Monkey, Ganbaron, Galaxy Express 999

Lucio Godoy

Ramana Gogula

Matthias Gohl

Ernest Gold

Murray Gold

Billy Goldenberg

Elliot Goldenthal (born 1954) — Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles, Alien 3, Frida, Heat, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within

Alison Goldfrapp (born 1966) — My Summer of Love, Nowhere Boy

Jean-Jacques Goldman

Jerry Goldsmith (1929–2004) — Planet of the Apes, Patton, The Omen, Alien, Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Total Recall, Basic Instinct

Joel Goldsmith

Jonathan Goldstein

Osvaldo Golijov (born 1960) — Youth Without Youth, Tetro, 11'09"01 September 11

Benny Golson

Alejandro González Iñárritu

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Alain Goraguer

Michael Gordon

Michael Gore

Adam Gorgoni

Manami Gotoh

Louis F. Gottschalk

Morton Gould

Patrick Gowers

Paul Grabowsky

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves

Allan Gray

Barry Gray

Clifford Grey

Gavin Greenaway

Johnny Green

Theo Green

Walter Greene

Jonny Greenwood (born 1971) — Bodysong, There Will Be Blood, Norwegian Wood

Gustaf Grefberg

Will Gregory (born 1959) — My Summer of Love, Nowhere Boy

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Raymond van het Groenewoud

Launy Grøndahl

Herbert Grönemeyer

Charles Gross

Jacob Groth

Louis Gruenberg (1884–1964) — Quicksand, Commandos Strike at Dawn, All the King's Men

Dave Grusin

Sofia Gubaidulina

James William Guercio (born 1945) — Electra Glide in Blue

Jean-Pierre Guiran

Fuat Güner

Christopher Gunning

Gurukiran

Olof Gustafsson

Sven Gyldmark

H[edit]

Alexander Hacke (born 1965) — Das Wilde Leben, Head-On, Hinter Kaifeck

Manos Hadjidakis

Georg Haentzschel

Richard Hageman

Earle Hagen

Uzeyir Hajibeyov

Taro Hakase

Halfdan E

Dick Halligan

Shirō Hamaguchi

Chico Hamilton

Marvin Hamlisch (1944–2012)

Chuck Hammer

Jan Hammer

Oscar Hammerstein II

Hamsalekha

Herbie Hancock

Frederic Hand

Kentarō Haneda

James Hannigan

Ilmari Hannikainen

Glen Hansard

Raymond Hanson

Chihiro Harada

Hagood Hardy

Jon Hare

Kurt Harland

Leigh Harline

Joe Harnell

Don Harper

Don L. Harper

Albert Harris

Johnny Harris

Sue Harris

John Harrison

Jimmy Harry

Jimmy Hart

Hal Hartley

Richard Hartley

Paul Hartnoll

Mick Harvey

Richard Harvey

Bo Harwood

Tomoki Hasegawa

Ichiko Hashimoto

Paul Haslinger

Aki Hata

Tony Hatch

Donny Hathaway

Marvin Hatley

Katsuhisa Hattori

M. Maurice Hawkesworth

Alan Hawkshaw

Fumio Hayasaka

Hikaru Hayashi — Death by Hanging

Isaac Hayes

Richard Hazard

Jim Hedges

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Zack Hemsey

Michael Hennagin

Joe Henry

Hans Werner Henze

Paul Hepker

Victor Herbert

Michel Herr

Bernard Herrmann (1911–1975) — Psycho, North by Northwest, Vertigo, Citizen Kane, Taxi Driver

Paul Hertzog — Bloodsport, Kickboxer

Dan Hess

David Hess

Nigel Hess

Eric Hester

Andrew Hewitt

David Hewson

Miki Higashino

Masanori Hikichi

Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson

Stephen Hilton

Paul Hindemith

Yoshihisa Hirano

Susumu Hirasawa

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Joe Hisaishi

Peter Hajba

Alun Hoddinott (1929–2008) — Sword of Sherwood Forest

Derrick Hodge

Michael Hoenig

Friedrich Hollaender

Dulcie Holland

David Holmes

Bo Holten — The Element of Crime

Arthur Honegger

Honk (formed 1970) — Five Summer Stories

Hannu Honkonen

Johan Hoogewijs

Les Hooper

Nicholas Hooper — Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Land of the Tiger

Nellee Hooper

Anthony Hopkins (born 1937) — August, Slipstream, Dylan Thomas: Return Journey

Antony Hopkins

Jon Hopkins

Kenyon Hopkins

Keith Hopwood

Trevor Horn

James Horner (born 1953) — Aliens, Braveheart, Avatar, The Land Before Time

Richard Horowitz

André Hossein

Tomoyasu Hotei (born 1962) — Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Samurai Fiction

James Newton Howard (born 1951) — The Sixth Sense, Unbreakable, The Village, Lady in the Water, The Dark Knight

Ken Howard

Alan Howarth

Peter Howell

Nihad Hrustanbegovic (born 1973)

Rob Hubbard (born 1955) — Master of Magic, Commando, Auf Wiedersehen Monty

L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986) — The Case He Couldn't Crack, The Problem of Life, What Happened to These Civilizations?[16]

Robert Hughes

Chris Hülsbeck

Scott Humphrey

Gottfried Huppertz (1887–1937) — Metropolis, Die Nibelungen, The Green Domino

Craig Huxley

Søren Hyldgaard

Dick Hyman

I[edit]

Jacques Ibert (1890–1962) —Adventures of Don Quixote, Golgotha, Macbeth, Conflit

Abdullah Ibrahim (born 1934) —Chocolat, No Fear, No Die

Toshi Ichiyanagi (born 1933) —Eros Plus Massacre

Akira Ifukube (1914–2006) —Godzilla, Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, Destroy All Monsters, Space Amoeba

Alberto Iglesias (born 1955) —All About My Mother, The Kite Runner, The Constant Gardener

Ilaiyaraaja (born 1943) —Thalapathi, Nayagan, Nizhalkuthu

Jerrold Immel (born 1936) —Dallas, How the West Was Won, Voyagers!

In the Nursery (formed 1981) —new music for the silent films The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Man with a Movie Camera, Asphalt

Daniel Ingram (born 1975) —My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Pound Puppies, Martha Speaks

Neil Innes (born 1944) —Monty Python's Flying Circus, Monty Python and the Holy Grail, All You Need Is Cash, Erik the Viking

Damon Intrabartolo (born 1975) —The Journey of Jared Price, Navigate this Maze

John Ireland (1879–1962) —The Overlanders

Markéta Irglová (born 1988) —Once

Pat Irwin (born 1955) —Rocko's Modern Life, Loose Women, Class of 3000

Peter Isaac —John Safran's Race Relations, Speaking in Tongues, Lawrence Leung's Choose Your Own Adventure

Mark Isham (born 1951) —Of Mice and Men, The Cooler, Blade, Crash

Chu Ishikawa —Tetsuo: The Iron Man, Gemini, A Snake of June

Emir Işılay —Murder on Pleasant Drive, Summerland

Masumi Itō —Angel Sanctuary, éX-Driver, Galaxy Angel

Teiji Ito (1935–1982) —Meshes of the Afternoon, The Very Eye of Night, Maeva

Peter Ivers(1946–1983) —Eraserhead, Grand Theft Auto, B. J. and the Bear

Taku Iwasaki —Origin: Spirits of the Past, Uncharted Waters Online, Onimusha

Taro Iwashiro (born 1965) —Red Cliff, Memories of Murder

Masaharu Iwata (born 1966) —Ogre Battle: The March of the Black Queen, Tactics Ogre: Let Us Cling Together, Final Fantasy Tactics

J[edit]

Jeet Ganguly

Steve Jablonsky (born 1970) —Transformers, The Island, Steamboy

Richard Jacques

Mick Jagger (born 1943) —Invocation of My Demon Brother, Alfie

Jaidev

Shankar Jaikishan

Ravindra Jain

Bob James (born 1939) —Taxi, Daniel

Malek Jandali

Chas Jankel

Enzo Jannacci (born 1935) —Seven Beauties

Werner Janssen

Jean Michel Jarre

Maurice Jarre (1924–2009) —Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Topaz, Dead Poets Society

Michael Jary

Maurice Jaubert

Harris Jayaraj

Wyclef Jean

Merrill Jenson

Zhao Jiping

Jo Yeong-wook

Antonio Carlos Jobim (Tom Jobim)

Adan Jodorowsky (born 1979) —Echek, Teou

Alejandro Jodorowsky (born 1929) —El Topo, The Holy Mountain

Barði Jóhannsson (born 1975) —Reykjavík-Rotterdam, Fíaskó, new music for the silent film Häxan

Jóhann Jóhannsson

Elton John

Johnson

J. J. Johnson

Laurie Johnson

Nathan Johnson

Arthur Johnston

Bobby Johnston

Jim Johnston

Brian Jones

Dan Jones

John Paul Jones

Quincy Jones (born 1933) —In Cold Blood, In the Heat of the Night, The Color Purple, Roots

Quincy Jones III

Tim Jones (born 1971) —The Forsaken, Chuck, Karla

Raymond Jones

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones (born 1949) —The Dark Crystal, Dark City, Mississippi Burning, The Last of the Mohicans

Jónsi

Lakshman Joseph de Saram - Bel Ami, Between Two Worlds

Peter Joseph

Richard Joseph

Michael Josephs

Don Julian (1937–1998) —Savage!, Shorty the Pimp

David Julyan —Memento, The Descent, The Prestige

Junkie XL (born 1967) —DOA: Dead or Alive, SSX Blur, Need for Speed: ProStreet

Walter Jurmann

Patrick Juvet

K[edit]

John Erik Kaada (born 1975) —O' Horten, Natural Born Star

Dmitri Kabalevsky

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek

Mauricio Kagel

Gus Kahn

Akari Kaida

Yuki Kajiura

Edd Kalehoff

Paul Kalkbrenner

George Kallis

Bert Kalmar

Peter Kam

Michael Kamen

John Kander

Shigeru Kan-no

Yoko Kanno

Tuomas Kantelinen

Bronisław Kaper

Sol Kaplan

Eleni Karaindrou

Nele Karajlić

Anton Karas

Fred Karlin

Laura Karpman

Kent Karlsson

Al Kasha

Peter Kater

Emilio Kauderer

Jake Kaufman

Kenji Kawai

Norman Kay

Eric Kaz (born 1947) —Greetings, Hi, Mom!

Yakov Kazyansky

Brian Keane

John E. Keane

John M. Keane

M. M. Keeravani

Roger Kellaway

Paul Kelly

Rolfe Kent

Walter Kent

Jerome Kern

Premasiri Kernadasa

Aram Khachaturian

Khaled

Aashish Khan

Ali Akbar Khan

Praga Khan

Usha Khanna

Yuri Khanon

Alex Khaskin

Mohammed Zahur Khayyam

Tikhon Khrennikov

Khawaja Khurshid Anwar

Shunsuke Kikuchi

Wojciech Kilar

Mark Kilian

Alastair King

John King

Kaki King

Gershon Kingsley

Basil Kirchin

Gökhan Kırdar

Grant Kirkhope

Martin Kiszko

Kitarō

Mark Klem

Johnny Klimek

Jan Klusák

David Knopfler

Mark Knopfler - The Princess Bride

Leon Ko

Erland von Koch (1910–2009) —Kris, It Rains on Our Love, Girl with Hyacinths

Krzysztof Komeda (1931–1969) —The Fearless Vampire Killers, Rosemary's Baby, Knife in the Water, Cul-de-sac

Koji Kondo (born 1960) —Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox 64

Robbie Kondor

Joseph Koo

Ben Kopec

Hermann Kopp (born 1954) —Nekromantik, Der Todesking, Nekromantik 2

Anders Koppel

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897–1957) —Anthony Adverse, The Adventures of Robin Hood

Danny Kortchmar

Mark Korven —I've Heard the Mermaids Singing, Cube, A Scattering of Seeds

Richard Kosinski

Joseph Kosma

Irwin Kostal - The Sound of Music, Mary Poppins, Fantasia (1982 digital re-recording)

Robert Kraft

William Kraft

Robert J. Kral

Wayne Kramer

Raoul Kraushaar

John Henry Kreitler

K. M. Radha Krishnan

David Kristian

Mina Kubota

Vivian Kubrick

Taro Kudou

G. V. Prakash Kumar

Gary Kuo

Emir Kusturica

Keisuke Kuwata

Chan Kwong-Wing

Jesper Kyd

Milan Kymlicka

L[edit]

John T. La Barbera —Pane Amaro, What's Up Scarlet?, Children of Fate: Life and Death in a Sicilian Family

Fariborz Lachini

Thorsten Laewe

Bappi Lahiri

Francis Lai (born 1932) —Love Story, Bilitis, A Man and a Woman

Laibach (formed 1980) —Iron Sky

Nick Laird-Clowes

Constant Lambert

Russ Landau

Marcel Landowski

Bruce Langhorne

Daniel Lanois

Laraaji

Glen A. Larson

Nathan Larson

Richard LaSalle

James Last

Alexander Laszlo

Felice Lattuada

Tats Lau

Ken Lauber

William Lava

Angelo Francesco Lavagnino

Tom Lavin

James Lavino

David Nessim Lawrence —American Pie, High School Musical

Elliot Lawrence

Stephen J. Lawrence

Maury Laws

Raam Laxman

Jean-Marc Lederman

Lee Byung-woo (born 1965) —A Tale of Two Sisters, The Host, Mother

Raymond Lefèvre (1929–2008) —Le Gendarme de Saint-Tropez, La Soupe aux choux

Michel Legrand (born 1932) —Cléo from 5 to 7, The Umbrellas of Cherbourg, F for Fake

Barry Leitch

Christopher Lennertz (born 1972) —Medal of Honor: Rising Sun, Saint Sinner, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Supernatural

Sean Lennon

Nicholas Lens

Stefano Lentini

Patrick Leonard

Raymond Leppard

Sondre Lerche (born 1982) —Dan in Real Life

Cory Lerios

César Lerner

Jérôme Leroy

Yaacov Bilansky Levanon

Sylvester Levay

Laurent Levesque

James S. Levine

Michael A. Levine

Krishna Levy (born 1964) —8 Women

Louis Levy

Shuki Levy

Frank Lewin

Herschell Gordon Lewis

Leslie Lewis

Paul Lewis

Jan Leyers

Blake Leyh

Sven Libaek

Michael Licari

Daniel Licht

György Ligeti

Harry Lightfoot (born 1985) - The Fisherman's Apprentice, Tales From The Wild Wood, Allegra McEvedy's Turkish Delights

Russell Lieblich

Krister Linder

Hal Lindes

Zdeněk Liška

Zülfü Livaneli

Jay Livingston

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Lowell Lo

Los Lobos

Didier Lockwood

Malcolm Lockyer

Joseph LoDuca —Xena: Warrior Princess, The Evil Dead, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, Army of Darkness

John Loeffler

Frederick Loewe

Henning Lohner

Jon Lord

Rob Lord

Saša Lošić

Alexina Louie

Louiguy

Jacques Loussier

Chris Lowe

David Lowe

Mundell Lowe

Jaye Luckett

Ralph Lundsten

Evan Lurie

John Lurie

Danny Lux

David Lynch (born 1946) —Eraserhead, Inland Empire, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me

Liam Lynch

M[edit]

M83 (formed 2001) — Oblivion

Lebo M (born 1964) — The Lion King 1½, Long Night's Journey into Day

Galt MacDermot

Teo Macero (1925–2008) — Virus, A.k.a. Cassius Clay

Madonna

Jun Maeda

Michel Magne

K. V. Mahadevan

Shankar Mahadevan

Taj Mahal

Vusi Mahlasela

Jerzy Maksymiuk

Anu Malik

Kalyani Malik

Dmitry Malikov

Matty Malneck

Albert Hay Malotte

Riichiro Manabe

Josh Mancell

Mark Mancina

Henry Mancini

Johnny Mandel

Christopher Mann

Roger Joseph Manning, Jr.

Franco Mannino

Manohar

Clint Mansell (born 1963) — π, Requiem for a Dream, The Fountain, Moon, Black Swan,

Keith Mansfield

Marilyn Manson (born 1969) — Resident Evil, Splatter Sisters

Tigran Mansurian (born 1939) — The Color of Pomegranates, We and Our Mountains

Kevin Manthei

Homero Manzi

Dario Marianelli (born 1963) — Atonement, V for Vendetta, Agora

Chris Marker (born 1921) — Sans Soleil

Yannis Markopoulos

Richard Marriott

Branford Marsalis

Wynton Marsalis

George Martin (born 1926) — Yellow Submarine, Live and Let Die

Jerry Martin

Cliff Martinez (born 1954) — Sex, Lies, and Videotape, Solaris, Kafka

Jean Martinon

J Mascis

John Massari

Massive Attack (formed 1988) — Danny the Dog, Bullet Boy, Battle in Seattle, Gomorrah

Diego Masson

Toshio Masuda

Muir Mathieson

Masaya Matsuura

Dave Matthews

Siegfried Matthus

Billy May

Brian May

Simon May

Curtis Mayfield (1942–1999) — Superfly

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Dennis McCarthy

Paul McCartney

Craig McConnell

Bear McCreary

Nathan McCree

Keff McCulloch

Gary McFarland

Rory McFarlane

Don McGlashan

Bill McGuffie

Tim McIntire

Rod McKuen

Joel McNeely

Joe Meek

DJ Mehdi

Brad Mehldau

Edmund Meisel (born 1894-1930) — The Battleship Potemkin

Gil Mellé (1931–2004) — The Andromeda Strain, My Sweet Charlie, Columbo

Mike Melvoin

Wendy Melvoin (born 1964) — Heroes, Dangerous Minds

Loy Mendonsa

Alan Menken

Dean Menta

Johnny Mercer

Freddie Mercury

Wim Mertens

Mateo Messina

Dominic Messinger

Metric

Micki Meuser

Mickey J Meyer

Lanny Meyers

Guy Michelmore

Mario Migliardi

Darius Milhaud

Mladen Milicevic

Marcus Miller

Robyn Miller

Chieli Minucci

Paul Misraki

Shyamal Mitra

Shinkichi Mitsumune

Hajime Mizoguchi

Vic Mizzy

Moby

Cyril J. Mockridge

Mogwai

Ghulam Mohammed

Madan Mohan

S. Mohinder

Charlie Mole

Paddy Moloney

Money Mark

Francis Monkman

Egil Monn-Iversen

Hugo Montenegro

Guy Moon

Anthony Moore

Dudley Moore

Lennie Moore

Mike Moran

Mark Morgan

Akihiko Mori

Nobuhiko Morino

Angela Morley (1924–2008) — Watership Down, The Slipper and the Rose, The Lady Is a Square

Giorgio Moroder (born 1940) — Midnight Express, Flashdance, American Gigolo, Scarface (1983 film), Impressionen unter Wasser

Jerome Moross

Andrea Morricone (born 1964) — Cinema Paradiso, Capturing the Friedmans[17]

Ennio Morricone (born 1928) — A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, The Untouchables[18]

John Morris

Trevor Morris

Bob Mothersbaugh

Mark Mothersbaugh (born 1950) — The Royal Tenenbaums, The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, Rugrats, Crash Bandicoot

Rob Mounsey

Leszek Możdżer (born 1971) — Nienasycenie, 1 000 000 $, Discover Chopin

Dominic Muldowney (born 1952) — Nineteen Eighty-Four, Sharpe, Copenhagen

Mugison (born 1976) — A Little Trip to Heaven

Nico Muhly (born 1981) — The Reader, Margaret

Manas Mukherjee

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Pankaj Mullick

David Munrow

Vano Muradeli

Rika Muranaka — Metal Gear Solid, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater

John Murphy (born 1965) — 28 Days Later, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, Sunshine, Kick-Ass

Stanley Myers (1930–1993) — The Deer Hunter, The Voyager, The Witches

N[edit]

Hideki Naganuma (born 1972) — Jet Set Radio, Sonic Rush, Super Monkey Ball: Banana Blitz

Kōtarō Nakagawa

Masato Nakamura (born 1958) — Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic the Hedgehog 2

Takayuki Nakamura

Desmond Nakano

Naked Lunch

Gianna Nannini

Akihiko Narita

Michiko Naruke

Mario Nascimbene

Nash the Slash

Nashad

Naushad Ali

Javier Navarrete

O. P. Nayyar

Blake Neely

Oliver Nelson

Neo (formed 1998) — Kontroll

Michael Nesmith

Olga Neuwirth

New Order (formed 1980) — Control

Ira Newborn

Alfred Newman - The King and I, Mother Wore Tights, Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing, How the West Was Won, Airport

David Newman - Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Freshman, Ice Age, Frankenweenie

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman

Joey Newman

Randy Newman - Ragtime, The Natural, Toy Story 1, 2 & 3, Monsters, Inc.

Thomas Newman

Mbongeni Ngema

Bruno Nicolai

Lennie Niehaus

Tomohito Nishiura

Joy Nilo

Harry Nilsson

Jack Nitzsche

Yuji Nomi

Ehsaan Noorani

Per Nørgård

Graeme Norgate

Monty Norman

Alex North - Spartacus, Cleopatra (1963), Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Dragonslayer

Christopher North

Julian Nott

The Notwist

Michael Nyman

Molly Nyman

O[edit]

Karen O (born 1978) — Where the Wild Things Are, Jackass Number Two

Seán Ó Riada

Richard O'Brien (born 1942) — Shock Treatment

Martin O'Donnell (born 1955) — Halo, Myth, Oni

Tom O'Horgan

Walter O'Keefe

Sharon O'Neill

Paul Oakenfold (born 1963) — Swordfish, Appleseed, Vexille, Nobel Son

Erkan Oğur (born 1954) — The Bandit, Toss-Up

Hisayoshi Ogura

Mike Oldfield

Orbital (formed 1989) — Event Horizon, Octane, Pusher

Norman Orenstein — American Psycho 2, Diary of the Dead, Cube 2: Hypercube

Shinji Orito

Buxton Orr

Riz Ortolani (born 1931) — Cannibal Holocaust, Africa Addio, Mondo cane

Michiru Oshima (born 1961) — Ico, Legend of Legaia, Arc the Lad, Fullmetal Alchemist

Osibisa (formed 1969) — Superfly T.N.T.

Kow Otani (born 1957) — Gamera: Guardian of the Universe, Shadow of the Colossus, Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack

Alex Otterlei — Xyanide, Totems

John Ottman (born 1964) — The Usual Suspects, Fantastic Four, Snow White: A Tale of Terror, I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream, X2

Vyacheslav Ovchinnikov (born 1936) — Ivan's Childhood, Andrei Rublev, War and Peace

Mark Ovenden — Yolngu Boy

Reg Owen (1921–1978) — Very Important Person, Payroll

Atilla Özdemiroğlu (born 1943) — Night Journey, Akrebin Yolculuğu

P[edit]

Craig Padilla — Phobias, Realms of Blood, Dark Woods

Mauro Pagani

Gene Page

Jimmy Page

Marty Paich

Shelly Palmer

Alan Parker

Clifton Parker

Elizabeth Parker

Jim Parker

Dean Parks

Gordon Parks

Van Dyke Parks

Arvo Pärt

Ioan Gyuri Pascu

Johnny Pate

Anthony Pateras

R. P. Patnaik

Mike Patton

Arun Paudwal

Alex Paul

Gene de Paul

Johnny Pearson

Gunner Møller Pedersen

Bernard Peiffer

Ahmad Pejman

Borja Penalba

Krzysztof Penderecki

Michael Penn

Heitor Pereira

Frank Perkins

Coleridge-Taylor Perkinson

Brendan Perry

William P. Perry

Jean-Claude Petit

Goffredo Petrassi

Tom Petty

Sudhir Phadke

Barrington Pheloung

Art Phillips

Britta Phillips

John Phillips

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

The Phoenix Foundation

Lucian Piane

Ástor Piazzolla

Piero Piccioni

Stéphane Picq

Enrico Pieranunzi

Jason Pierce

Tom Pierson

Pink Floyd

Antonio Pinto

Nicola Piovani

Douglas Pipes

Plaid

Plan B

Michael Richard Plowman

Terry Plumeri

Dmitry Pokrass

Pier Paolo Polcari

Basil Poledouris

Robert Pollard

David Pomeranz

Gillo Pontecorvo

Jocelyn Pook

Popol Vuh (formed 1970) — Aguirre, the Wrath of God, Heart of Glass, Nosferatu the Vampyre, Fitzcarraldo, Cobra Verde

Gavriil Nikolayevich Popov

Steve Porcaro

Pornosonic

Michel Portal

Cole Porter

Rachel Portman

Mike Post

Oscar Potoker

Sally Potter

Rob Pottorf

Andrew Powell

John Powell

Vasant Prabhu

Devi Sri Prasad

Prashant-Krishnan

Pray for Rain

Zbigniew Preisner

Don Preston

André Previn

Dory Previn

Alan Price

Andy Price

Michael Price

Prince

Robert Prince

Pritam

Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953) — Ivan the Terrible, Alexander Nevsky, Lieutenant Kijé

Craig Pruess

Alec Puro (born 1975) — The Art of Getting By, The Street Stops Here

Q[edit]

Queen (formed 1971) — Flash Gordon, Highlander

Quintessence (formed 1969) — Midnight

R[edit]

R.E.M. (1980–2011) — Man on the Moon

Jaan Rääts (born 1932) — Aeg elada, aeg armastada, Ohtlikud mängud

Peer Raben (1940–2007) — Berlin Alexanderplatz, The Marriage of Maria Braun, Querelle, Veronika Voss, Lili Marleen

Trevor Rabin (born 1954) — Con Air, Armageddon, Gone in 60 Seconds

James Rado

Robert O. Ragland

A. R. Rahman

Rajan-Nagendra

David Raksin

Brian Ralston

Sid Ramin

S. Rajeswara Rao

Ernö Rapée

Roop Kumar Rathod

François Rauber

Raveendran

Ravi

Simon Ravn

Alan Rawsthorne

Satyajit Ray

Ray Reach

Alto Reed

Mark Reeder (born 1958) — Nekromantik 2

Emil Reesen (1887–1964)

Steve Reich

Dirk Reichardt

Ernst Reijseger

Niki Reiser

Brian Reitzell

Franz Reizenstein

Joe Renzetti

Mike Renzi

Himesh Reshammiya

The Residents

Graeme Revell

Gian Piero Reverberi

Silvestre Revueltas

Graham Reynolds

Trent Reznor (born 1965) — Quake, The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo

Rheostatics

Andi Rianto

Fred Rich

Neil Richardson

Max Richter

Nelson Riddle

Stan Ridgway

Hugo Riesenfeld

Waldo de los Ríos (1934–1977) — Savage Pampas, La residencia, A Town Called Hell, ¿Quién Puede Matar A Un Niño?

Stephen Rippy

Laza Ristovski

Lolita Ritmanis

Paul Robb

Richard Robbins

Andy Roberts

Jamie Robertson

J. Peter Robinson

Nile Rodgers

Robert Rodriguez

Heinz Eric Roemheld

Roger Roger

Sonny Rollins (born 1930) — Alfie

Alejandro Román

Alain Romans

Douglas Romayne

Sigmund Romberg

Philippe Rombi

Manuel Romero

Paul Romero

Jeff Rona

Lior Ron

Ann Ronell (1906–1993) — The Story of G.I. Joe, Love Happy, One Touch of Venus

David Rose

Max van der Rose

Leonard Rosenman (1924–2008) — East of Eden, Rebel Without a Cause, Fantastic Voyage, The Lord of the Rings

Laurence Rosenthal - Clash of the Titans, Peter the Great

Roshan

Atticus Ross (born 1968) — Touching Evil, New York, I Love You, The Book of Eli, The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo

Leopold Ross — Touching Evil, New York, I Love You, The Book of Eli

William Ross

Renzo Rossellini

Hubert Rostaing

Nino Rota (1911–1979) — La Strada, La Dolce Vita, The Godfather

Arnie Roth — Barbie as Rapunzel, Barbie as the Princess and the Pauper

Glen Roven

Hahn Rowe

Bruce Rowland

Miklós Rózsa (1907–1995) — Spellbound, Quo Vadis, Ben-Hur, King of Kings

Arthur B. Rubinstein

Donald Rubinstein

John Rubinstein

Harry Ruby

Steve Rucker

Pete Rugolo

Mark Russell

Carlo Rustichelli

Paolo Rustichelli

Mark Rutherford

Alexey Rybnikov

RZA (born 1969) — Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, Kill Bill: Vol. 1, Afro Samurai

S[edit]

S.E.N.S. (formed 1988) —A City of Sadness, xxxHolic, Kurau Phantom Memory

Haim Saban

Danny Saber (born 1966) —Blade II, The Limey

Shigeaki Saegusa

Craig Safan (born 1948) —The Last Starfighter, Fade to Black, Cheers

Jamie Saft

Toshihiko Sahashi

Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921) —The Assassination of the Duke of Guise

Ryuichi Sakamoto

Salim-Sulaiman

Hans J. Salter

Michael Salvatori

Leonard Salzedo

Adnan Sami

George Sanger (born 1957) —Wing Commander, Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss, The 7th Guest

John Sangster

Stéphane Sanseverino

Carlos Santana

Gustavo Santaolalla (born 1951) —Brokeback Mountain, Amores perros, Babel

Cláudio Santoro

Philippe Sarde

David Sardy

Eric Satie (1866–1925) —Entr'acte

Masaru Sato

Naoki Satō

Tenpei Sato

Brian Satterwhite

Jordi Savall

Domenico Savino

Nitin Sawhney

Paul Sawtell

Walter Scharf

Glenn Schellenberg —Zero Patience

Victor Schertzinger

Peter Schickele (born 1935) —Silent Running, Where the Wild Things Are

Lalo Schifrin (born 1932) —Mission: Impossible, Cool Hand Luke, Bullitt, Dirty Harry

Adam Schlesinger

Irmin Schmidt

Johannes Schmoelling

Enjott Schneider (born 1950) —March of Millions, Stalingrad, Brother of Sleep, 23

Helge Schneider

Alfred Schnittke

Gaili Schoen

Eberhard Schoener

Schoolly D (born 1966) —New Rose Hotel

Barry Schrader

Scott Schreer

Ralph Schuckett

Norbert Schultze

Klaus Schulze (born 1947) —Angst, Body Love, Le Moulin de Daudet

Walter Schumann

Sigi Schwab

David Schwartz

Stephen Schwartz

Garry Schyman

John Scott

Tom Scott

Vincent Scotto

Peter Sculthorpe

Humphrey Searle (1915–1982) —The Haunting

Sebastian (born 1949) —You Are Not Alone

Sebastian (born 1981) —Steak, Our Day Will Come

Fat Segal —Skins

Misha Segal —The Phantom of the Opera, The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking, The Last Dragon

Mátyás Seiber (1905–1960) —Animal Farm

Mark Seibert

Ilona Sekacz

Tsuyoshi Sekito

Jun Senoue

Seppuku Paradigm (formed 2005) —Martyrs, Eden Log, Red Nights

Alex Seropian

Éric Serra

Arban Severin

Steven Severin (born 1955) —Visions of Ecstasy, Delphinium: A Childhood Portrait of Derek Jarman

Thomas Edward Seymour

Kyriakos Sfetsas

Marc Shaiman

Vladimir Shainsky

Gingger Shankar

Ravi Shankar

Ray Shanklin

Shantel

Theodore Shapiro

Jamshied Sharifi

Shark

Mani Sharma

Monty Sharma

Edward Shearmur

Bert Shefter

Duncan Sheik (born 1969) —A Home at the End of the World, Through the Fire

William Sheller

Richard M. Sherman

Robert B. Sherman

Tetsuya Shibata

Leroy Shield

Kevin Shields

Sumio Shiratori

David Shire

Sxip Shirey —Statuesque

Howard Shore

Ryan Shore

Dmitri Shostakovich

Aadesh Shrivastava

Shudder to Think

Leo Shuken

Mort Shuman

Louis Siciliano

Steve Sidwell

Valgeir Sigurðsson

Kazimierz Sikorski

Carlo Siliotto

Louis Silvers

Alan Silvestri

Samuel Sim

Zoran Simjanović

Carly Simon

Claudio Simonetti

Rob Simonsen

Madan Gopal Singh

Uttam Singh

16Volt

Lucijan Marija Škerjanc

Frank Skinner

Leland Sklar

Andys Skordis

Józef Skrzek

Cezary Skubiszewski

Wikluh Sky (born 1980) —A Serbian Film

Mark Slater

Michael Small

Bruce Smeaton

Paul J. Smith

Mark Snow

Sofa Surfers — Komm, süßer Tod, Silentium, Der Knochenmann

Sohail Sen (born 1984) — Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Sey[19]

Martial Solal (born 1927) — Breathless

Jason Solowsky

Stephen Sondheim

Sonic Mayhem — Quake II, Tomorrow Never Dies, Hellgate: London

Warrick Sony

Nicolás Sorín

Pablo Sorozábal

Ondřej Soukup

André Souris

Leonid Soybelman

Stamatis Spanoudakis

Benjamin Speed

Sam Spence

Herbert W. Spencer

Spiralmouth

Carl Stalling

Stuart A. Staples

Herman Stein

Ronald Stein

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner

Aage Stentoft

Stereo Total

Cat Stevens

Leith Stevens

Morton Stevens

David A. Stewart

Diego Stocco

Karlheinz Stockhausen

Ethan Stoller

Robert Stolz

Richard Stone

Herbert Stothart

Patricia Lee Stotter

Matthew Strachan

Oscar Straus

Charles Strouse

Joe Strummer

Ike Stubblefield

Andy Sturmer

Cong Su

Dinesh Subasinghe[20][21]

Morton Subotnick (born 1933) —Dreamwood

Jeff Sudakin

Harry Sukman

Andy Summers

Sun City Girls

Keiichi Suzuki

Georgy Sviridov

Karel Svoboda

Jeremy Sweet

Mola Sylla

Władysław Szpilman (1911–2000) — Swit, dzien i noc Palestyny, Doktór Murek, Wrzos, Co rekne zena?

T[edit]

Mousse T. (born 1966) —Pornorama

Germaine Tailleferre (1892–1983) —Ces dames aux chapeaux verts, Les deux timides, Le Petit Chose

Masafumi Takada (born 1970) —Killer7, Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles, No More Heroes, Michigan: Report from Hell

Tōru Takemitsu (1930–1996) —Ran, Dodes'ka-den, Woman in the Dunes, Pitfall, The Face of Another, Empire of Passion, Kwaidan

Joby Talbot (born 1971) —The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The League of Gentlemen's Apocalypse, Franklyn

Frédéric Talgorn (born 1961) —Robot Jox, Fortress, Heavy Metal 2000

David Tamkin

Tan Dun (born 1957) —Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Hero, Don't Cry, Nanking, The Banquet

Kōhei Tanaka (born 1954) —Vampire Princess Miyu, Alundra, The Granstream Saga

Tangerine Dream (formed 1967) —Legend, Firestarter, Thief, Sorcerer

Mikael Tariverdiev

Brian Tarquin

John Tavener (1944–2013) —Children of Men, Pilgrimage, Battle in Heaven

Michael Tavera

Mick Taylor

Terry Scott Taylor (born 1950) —The Neverhood, Skullmonkeys, Project G.e.e.K.e.R.

Boris Tchaikovsky

Team Shanghai Alice

Jeroen Tel

Sébastien Tellier

Bob Telson

Tenacious D (formed 1994) —Tenacious D in The Pick of Destiny, Tenacious D

Tenmon (born 1971) —She and Her Cat, The Place Promised in Our Early Days, Voices of a Distant Star

Neil Tennant

John Tesh

Jeanine Tesori

Francois Tetaz

Alan Tew

Third Ear Band —Abelard and Heloise, Macbeth

Mikis Theodorakis (born 1925) —Zorba the Greek, Z, Serpico, State of Siege

They Might Be Giants

Maurice Thiriet

Chance Thomas

Pete Thomas

Peter Thomas (born 1925) —Raumpatrouille – Die phantastischen Abenteuer des Raumschiffes Orion, The Big Boss, Chariots of the Gods

Stuart Michael Thomas

Virgil Thomson

Jon Mikl Thor

Ken Thorne

Throbbing Gristle (formed 1975) —In the Shadow of the Sun

Yann Tiersen

Tôn-Thất Tiết

Martin Tillman

Chris Tilton

Christopher Tin

Tindersticks

Dimitri Tiomkin

George Tipton

Boris Tishchenko

Amon Tobin

Ernst Toch

Pyotr Todorovsky

Richard Tognetti

Magome Togoshi

Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra (formed 1985) —Incredible Crisis, Sly Cooper and the Thievius Raccoonus

James Tomalin

tomandandy —Killing Zoe, Arlington Road, The Hills Have Eyes, Resident Evil: Afterlife

Tomatito (born 1958) —Vengo

Isao Tomita

Sheridan Tongue

Pınar Toprak

Ceiri Torjussen

Veljo Tormis

David Torn

Raúl de la Torre

Kazumi Totaka

Toto (formed 1977) —Dune

Colin Towns

Kazuhiko Toyama

Jeff Toyne

Goran Trajkoski

The Transcenders

Joseph Trapanese

Stephen Trask

Armando Trovaioli

Amit Trivedi

Andrzej Trzaskowski

Mark Tschanz

Yuka Tsujiyoko

Jonathan Tunick

Tuxedomoon

Tommy Tycho

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Jeff Tymoschuk

Christopher Tyng

Gerald Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Baron Berners (1883–1950) —Nicholas Nickleby, The Halfway House, Champagne Charlie

U[edit]

Matt Uelmen (born 1972) —Diablo, Diablo II, Torchlight

Nobuo Uematsu (born 1959) —Final Fantasy series, Lost Odyssey, Final Fantasy VII Advent Children, Blue Dragon

Tatsuya Uemura (born 1960) —Zero Wing, Sky Shark, Hellfire

Kōji Ueno (born 1960) —Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise, Imabikisō, Fantastic Children

Yoko Ueno (born 1963) —Gamera the Brave, Brigadoon: Marin & Melan, .hack//Legend of the Twilight

Özkan Uğur (born 1953) —Arkadaşım Şeytan

Shigeru Umebayashi (born 1951) —In the Mood for Love, 2046, House of Flying Daggers, Tears for Sale

Piero Umiliani (1926–2001) —Sweden: Heaven and Hell, Boccaccio '70, I soliti ignoti

Underworld (formed 1980) —Breaking and Entering, Sunshine

Christof Unterberger (born 1970) —Der Anschlag, Stabat, I Love in You

Vladimir Ussachevsky (1911–1990) —No Exit, Line of Apogee

Teo Usuelli (1920–2009) —Dillinger Is Dead, The Ape Woman, L'udienza

V[edit]

Steve Vai (born 1960) — Crossroads, Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey, Encino Man

Bebo Valdés

Gary Valenciano

Frank Valentini

Nils-Aslak Valkeapää

Jonne Valtonen

John Van Tongeren

David Vanacore

Vangelis (born 1943) — Blade Runner, 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Chariots of Fire, Alexander, L'Apocalypse des animaux

Melvin Van Peebles

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Ben Vaughn — That '70s Show, 3rd Rock from the Sun, Psycho Beach Party, Black Mask

Eddie Vedder (born 1964) — Into The Wild

Herman van Veen

Cris Velasco

Caetano Veloso

James L. Venable

G K Venkatesh

S.P. Venkatesh

Stéphane Venne

Peter Vermeersch

Vertexguy

Mike Vickers

Vidyasagar

Tommy Vig (born 1938) — They Call Me Bruce?, The Kid with the Broken Halo, Starsky and Hutch: Birds of a Feather, Sweet Sixteen, Texas Lightning, Ruckus, Forced Entry, Nightmare Circus, Doctors' Hospital, This Is the Life" [22]

Vishal Bhardwaj (born 1960) — Omkara, Kaminey[23]

Emil Viklický

Heitor Villa-Lobos

Dado Villa-Lobos

Ramesh Vinayakam

Carl Vine

Anandji Virji Shah

Kalyanji Virji Shah

Vishal-Shekhar

M. S. Viswanathan

José María Vitier

Roman Vlad (1919–2013)

Tolis Voskopoulos

Neil D. Voss

Chris Vrenna

Henny Vrienten

W[edit]

Waddy Wachtel (born 1947) — Up in Smoke, Joe Dirt, Paul Blart: Mall Cop

Kaoru Wada

Derek Wadsworth

Loudon Wainwright III

Tom Waits

W. G. Walden

Mark Walk

Scott Walker

Shirley Walker

Simon Walker

Jack Wall

Wallace Collection — La Maison

William Walton

Wang Chung

Qiang Wang

Thomas Wanker

War (formed 1969) — Youngblood

Stephen Warbeck

Edward Ward

Kyle Ward

Dean Wareham

Régis Wargnier

Mervyn Warren

Henryk Wars

Don Was

Ned Washington

Toshiyuki Watanabe

Roger Waters

Franz Waxman (1906–1967) — Sunset Boulevard, Bride of Frankenstein, Rebecca, A Place in the Sun, Rear Window

Dwayne Wayans

Jeff Wayne

Jimmy Webb

Roy Webb

Simon Webb

Konstantin Wecker

Craig Wedren

Mieczysław Weinberg

Edwin Wendler

Wendy & Lisa

Walter Werzowa

Fred Wesley

Bugge Wesseltoft

Mel Wesson

Nigel Westlake

David Whitaker

Richard A. Whiting

Guy Whitmore

David Whittaker

George Whitty

Frederik Wiedmann

Zygmunt Wiehler

Clarence Wijewardena

Gert Wilden

Matthew Wilder

Simon Wilkinson

Steve Willaert

Charles Williams

Jim Williams

John Williams

Joseph Williams

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Timothy Williams

Malcolm Williamson

Meredith Willson

Mortimer Wilson

Nancy Wilson

Jamin Winans

Sam Winans

Herbert Windt

Kirk Winterrowd

Jean Wiener

David Wise

Debbie Wiseman

Jozef van Wissem

Charles Wolcott

Peter Wolf

Richard Wolf

Jonathan Wolff

Byron Wong

Christopher Wong

Raymond Wong Ying-Wah

D. Wood

Ronnie Wood

John Wooldridge

Lyle Workman

Tim Wright

Allie Wrubel

Alex Wurman

Robert Wyatt

Bill Wyman

Timothy Michael Wynn

X[edit]

Stavros Xarchakos (born 1939) — Rembetiko, The Dark Side of the Sun, Signs of Life

Iannis Xenakis (1922–2001) — The Thessaloniki World Fair

Xhol Caravan (1967–1972) — Das Unheil, Wir - zwei

Xian Xinghai (1905–1945) — Yan'an and the Eighth Route Army

Y[edit]

Shoji Yamashiro (born 1933) — Akira

Akira Yamaoka

Stomu Yamashta

Yanni

Gabriel Yared

Peyman Yazdanian

Wandly Yazid

Jack Yellen

Yello

Narciso Yepes

Gary Yershon

Michael Yezerski

Yiruma

Seiji Yokoyama

Yo La Tengo

Yuji Yoshino

Christopher Young

Neil Young

Victor Young

Wendell Yuponce

Z[edit]

Michael Zager (born 1943) — Friday the 13th Part III

Dorin Liviu Zaharia

John Stepan Zamecnik

Geoff Zanelli

Frank Zappa

Richard Zarou

Marcelo Zarvos

Aleksandr Zatsepin

Paul Zaza

Zazie

Lev Zhurbin (born 1978)

Pablo Ziegler

Aaron Zigman

Winfried Zillig

Hans Zimmer (born 1957) — The Lion King, Gladiator, The Dark Knight, Inception, Sherlock Holmes, The Prince of Egypt

Matteo Zingales (born 1980) — The Hunter, All Saints, Winners & Losers

Rob Zombie

John Zorn

Jeremy Zuckerman — Avatar: The Last Airbender, The Last Airbender: Legend of Korra

Zuntata

Inon Zur

Ralph Zurmühle

Josiah Zuro (1887–1930) — The King of Kings, The Covered Wagon, Holiday

Otto Zykan (1935–2006) — Staatsoperette, Exit... nur keine Panik

References[edit]

Jump up ^ J. J. Abrams at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ André Abujamra at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Bojan Adamič at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ John Adams at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Richard Addinsell at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ John Addison at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Larry Adler at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Air at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Yasushi Akutagawa at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Mazhar Alanson at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Damon Albarn at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Timothy Albee at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Edesio Alejandro at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Jeff Alexander at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ John Altman at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ L. Ron Hubbard at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Andrea Morricone at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Ennio Morricone at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Sohail Sen at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Dinesh subasinghe at the National film corporation profile

Jump up ^ Dinesh Subasinghe at the films.lk

Jump up ^ Tommy Vig at the Internet Movie Database

Jump up ^ Vishal Bhardwaj at the Internet Movie Database

Categories: Lists of composersLists of people by filmmaking occupationFilm score composers

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Category:American film score composers

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Contents [hide]

Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Pages in category "American film score composers"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 509 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

(previous 200) (next 200)

A

Neal Acree

Tom Adair

Stephen Akina

Jeff Alexander

Alloy Orchestra

David Amram

Michael Andrews (musician)

George Antheil

Leo Arnaud

Jeff Arwady

Kenneth Ascher

Ash Black Bufflo

William Axt

B

Michael Bacon (musician)

Angelo Badalamenti

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Mischa Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker (composer)

Richard Band

Warren Barker

Marcus Barone

Nathan Barr

Steve Bartek

Dee Barton

Jules Bass

Reginald Hazeltine Bassett

Tyler Bates

Les Baxter

John Beal (composer)

Fletcher Beasley

Anomie Belle

Robert Russell Bennett

Alan Bergman

Marilyn Bergman

Irving Berlin

Norman L. Berman

Charles Bernstein (composer)

Elmer Bernstein

Leonard Bernstein

Salvatore Dell'Isola

Peter Bernstein (composer)

Adam Berry

Harry Betts

Joseph Bishara

Terence Blanchard

Michael Boddicker

Marc Bonilla

Robert Hood Bowers

Euel Box

Scott Bradley

John Joseph Braham, Sr.

Steven Bramson

Buddy Bregman

Joseph Carl Breil

Jon Brion

Nicholas Britell

Jeff Britting

Timothy Brock

Harvey Oliver Brooks

Lee Brooks

Bill Brown (composer)

Dennis C. Brown

Jimmy Bryant (singer)

BT (musician)

Justin Burnett

Carter Burwell

David Buttolph

B cont.

Joseph Byrd

C

John Cacavas

Darrell Calker

Sean Callery

Paul Cantelon

David Carbonara

Gerard Carbonara

Sam Cardon

Wendy Carlos

John Carpenter

Gaylord Carter

Kristopher Carter

Teddy Castellucci

Chanda Dancy

Saul Chaplin

Jay Chattaway

Jamie Christopherson

Toby Chu

Frank Churchill

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Charlie Clouser

Elia Cmíral

John Coda

Stephen Coleman

Sylvia Constantinidis

Bill Conti

Ry Cooder

Peggy Stuart Coolidge

Stewart Copeland

Aaron Copland

Cecil Copping

Carmine Coppola

Alexander Courage

Douglas J. Cuomo

Robert Cutietta

Murray Cutter

D

Ken Darby

Mason Daring

Don Davis (composer)

Frank De Vol

Barry De Vorzon

Dick DeBenedictis

John Debney

Mark De Gli Antoni

Jack Delano

Julie Delpy

Gene de Paul

Bryce Dessner

Keegan DeWitt

Vince DiCola

Don DiNicola

Robert E. Dolan

Dani Donadi

James Dooley (composer)

Carmen Dragon

Christopher Drake

Dennis Dreith

Howard Drossin

Clay Duncan

Robert Duncan (composer)

George Duning

E

Clint Eastwood

Kyle Eastwood

Randy Edelman

Roger Edens

Greg Edmonson

E cont.

Carl Edouarde

Edward J. Kay

Jon Ehrlich

Cliff Eidelman

Danny Elfman

Jonathan Elias

Jack Elliott (composer)

Dean Elliott

Leo Erdody

Evan Evans (film composer)

F

Barney Fagan

Brad Fiedel

Jerry Fielding

Robbi Finkel

Stephen Flaherty

Tom Flannery

Robert Folk

Leo F. Forbstein

Charles Fox (composer)

Milt Franklyn

Hugo Friedhofer

Gary William Friedman

Dominic Frontiere

Nathan Furst

G

Michael Galasso

Frank Gari

Marvin Gaye

Joel Geddis

Grant Geissman

George Gershwin

Michael Giacchino

Richard Gibbs

Randall Giles

Philip Glass

Albert Glasser

Erik Godal

Joel Goffin

Elliot Goldenthal

Radu Goldiş

Jerry Goldsmith

Joel Goldsmith

Joseph Julian Gonzalez

Joel Goodman (composer)

Miles Goodman

Peter Gordon (composer)

Michael Gore

Archie Gottler

Louis F. Gottschalk

John R. Graham (composer)

Johnny Green

Paul Green (musician)

Walter Greene

Charles Gross

Dave Grusin

H

Scott Hackwith

Richard Hageman

Earle Hagen

Marvin Hamlisch

Bobby Hammack

Chuck Hammer

W. Franke Harling

Don L. Harper

J. Robert Harris

John Harrison (director)

Jimmie Haskell

Brad Hatfield

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Mini biography from IMDB

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood’s most innovative musical talents‚ having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group’s single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV.

Zimmer entered the world of film music in London during a long collaboration with famed composer and mentor Stanley Myers‚ which included the film My Beautiful Laundrette. He soon began work on several successful solo projects‚ including the critically acclaimed A World Apart‚ and during these years Zimmer pioneered the use of combining old and new musical technologies. Today‚ this work has earned him the reputation of being the father of integrating the electronic musical world with traditional orchestral arrangements.

A turning point in Zimmer’s career came in 1988 when he was asked to score Rain Man for director Barry Levinson. The film went on to win the Oscar for Best Picture of the Year and earned Zimmer his first Academy Award Nomination for Best Original Score. The next year‚ Zimmer composed the score for another Best Picture Oscar recipient‚ Driving Miss Daisy‚ starring Jessica Tandy and Morgan Freeman.

Having already scored two Best Picture winners‚ in the early ’90s Zimmer cemented his position as a pre-eminent talent with the award-winning score for The Lion King. The soundtrack has sold over 15 million copies to date and earned him an Academy Award for Best Original Score‚ a Golden Globe‚ an American Music Award‚ a Tony and two Grammy Awards. In total‚ Zimmer’s work has been nominated for 7 Golden Globes‚ 7 Grammys and seven Oscars for “Rainman”‚ “Gladiator”‚ “The Lion King”‚ “As good As It Gets”‚ “The Preachers Wife”‚ “The Thin Red Line‚” “The Prince Of Egypt” and “The Last Samurai.”

With his career in full swing‚ Zimmer was anxious to replicate the mentoring experience he had benefited from under Stanley Myers’ guidance. With state-of-the-art technology and a supportive creative environment‚ Zimmer was able to offer film-scoring opportunities to young composers at his Santa Monica-based musical ’think tank.’ This approach helped launch the careers of such notable composers as Mark Mancina‚ John Powell‚ Harry Gregson-Williams‚ Nick Glennie-Smith and Klaus Badelt.

In 2000 Zimmer scored the music for Gladiator‚ for which he received an Oscar nomination‚ in addition to Golden Globe and Broadcast Film Critics Awards for his epic score. It sold more than three million copies worldwide and spawned a second album “Gladiator: More Music From The Motion Picture‚” released on the Universal Classics/Decca label. Zimmer’s other scores that year included Mission: Impossible 2‚ The Road To El Dorado and An Everlasting Piece‚ directed by Barry Levinson.

2013

Assassin's Creed III - The Tyranny Of King Washington (VG)

The Lone Ranger

Girl Rising (Documentary)

Phantom

Man Of Steel

G.I. Joe - Retaliation

The Bible (TV Series)

Parker

Hansel & Gretel - Witch Hunters

Gangster Squad

Gears Of War - Judgment (VG)

Bullet To The Head

Olympus Has Fallen

Pain & Gain

20 Ans D'Ecart

2012

Les Seigneurs

The Watermen

The Dark Knight Rises (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

The Sims 3 - Showtime, Supernatural & Seasons (VG)

Shanghai Calling

Images Of Life

The Grey

The American Scream (Documentary)

Sammy 2

Abraham Lincoln - Vampire Hunter

Dr. Seuss' The Lorax

Prometheus

Sorcery (VG)

Epic Mickey 2 - The Power Of Two (VG)

Madagascar 3 - Europe's Most Wanted (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

The Sweeney

Assassin's Creed III (VG)

Total Recall

Red Dawn

Battleship

Wreck-It Ralph

Skylanders - Giants (VG)

The Grey (Expanded Score) [Bootleg Release]

Restless (TV)

Bad Karma

The Dark Knight Rises

Game Of Thrones (TV Series - Season 2)

Ice Age - Continental Drift

Aurora

The Odd Life Of Timothy Green

Prometheus (Expanded Score) [Bootleg Release]

Position Music - Orchestral Series Volume 10

The 84th Academy Awards - Celebrate The Music

Medal Of Honor - Warfighter (VG)

Yoko

Madagascar 3 - Europe's Most Wanted

The Reef 2 - High Tide

Safe House

Killing Them Softly

Gone

Wreck-It Ralph (Complete Score) [Promotional Release]

Man On A Ledge

2011

La Guerre Des Boutons

Gears Of War 3 (VG)

You May Not Kiss The Bride

Cowboys & Aliens

Fright Night

Rio (Soundtrack)

Thelma & Louise (Score)

Assassin's Creed - Revelations (VG) (The Complete Recordings)

30° Couleur

51

Person Of Interest (TV Series)

Transformers - Dark Of The Moon

inFamous 2 - The Blue Soundtrack (VG)

Who Are The Roma? (Short Documentary) [Promotional Release]

Puss In Boots

Jock Of The Bushveld

Sherlock Holmes - A Game Of Shadows

Restoring The Light (Short Film)

The Prodigies

WWII In HD (Documentary)

Immortals

Life In A Day (Documentary)

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The Greatest Film Composers of All Time & Their Best Movie

by smith-d-c created 07 Aug 2011 | last updated - 07 Aug 2011

(Don't take the ranking seriously after the 1st 20 names. I am fond of them all.)

Showing all 100 People Sort by:

View:

1.

Bernard Herrmann

Music Department, Citizen Kane

The man behind the low woodwinds that open Citizen Kane, the shrieking violins of Psycho, and the plaintive saxophone of Taxi Driver was one of the most original and distinctive composers ever to work in film. He started early, winning a composition prize at the age of 13 and founding his own orchestra at the age of 20...

“ Vertigo & Psycho (tie)

The greatest composer of all time who is able to get inside the thoughts of a character. ” - smith-d-c

2.

John Williams

Music Department, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

As one of the best known, awarded, and financially successful composers in US history, John Williams is as easy to recall as John Philip Sousa, Aaron Copland or Leonard Bernstein, illustrating why he is "America's composer" time and again. With a massive list of awards that includes over 41 Oscar nominations (five wins)...

“ Star Wars

It is basically a tie for first place. Williams represents all that I love about the movies and was a huge part of my growing up. ” - smith-d-c

3.

Ennio Morricone

Composer, The Untouchables

A classmate of director Sergio Leone with whom he would form one of the great director/composer partnerships (right up there with Eisenstein & Prokofiev, Hitchcock & Herrmann, Fellini & Rota), Ennio Morricone studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory, where he specialized in trumpet. His first film scores were relatively undistinguished...

“ The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly ” - smith-d-c

4.

John Barry

Music Department, Diamonds Are Forever

John Barry was born in York, England in 1933, and was the youngest of three children. His father, Jack, owned several local cinemas and by the age of fourteen, Barry was capable of running the projection box on his own - in particular, The Rialto in York. As he was brought up in a cinematic environment...

“ From Russia With Love

(Has all the Bond themes in one movie) ” - smith-d-c

5.

Elmer Bernstein

Music Department, Cape Fear

Elmer Bernstein was educated at the Walden School and New York University. He served in the US Army Air Corps in World War II. A prolific and respected film music composer, he was a protégé of Aaron Copland, who studied music with Roger Sessions and Stefan Wolpe. Bernstein worked in various artistic endeavors...

“ The Magnificent Seven ” - smith-d-c

6.

Maurice Jarre

Composer, Ghost

Unlike many musicians who started to learn music while still in their childhood, Maurice Jarre was already late in his teens when he discovered music and decided to make a career in that field. Against his father's will, he enrolled at Conservatoire de Paris where he studied percussions, composition and harmonies...

“ Lawrence of Arabia ” - smith-d-c

7.

Max Steiner

Composer, Casablanca

Austrian composer who achieved legendary status as the creator of hundreds of classic American film scores. As a child he was astonishingly musically gifted, composing complex works as a teenager and completing the course of study at Vienna's Hochschule fuer Musik und Darstellende Kunst in only one year...

“ Gone With The Wind ” - smith-d-c

8.

Jerry Goldsmith

Music Department, Mulan

Born on February 10, 1929, Jerry Goldsmith studied piano with Jakob Gimpel and composition, theory, and counterpoint with Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. He also attended classes in film composition given by Miklós Rózsa at the Univeristy of Southern California. In 1950, he was employed as a clerk typist in the music department at CBS...

“ Patton ” - smith-d-c

9.

Hans Zimmer

Music Department, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood's most innovative musical talents, having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group's single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV...

“ Gladiator & The Lion King (tie) ” - smith-d-c

10.

Erich Wolfgang Korngold

Soundtrack, The Big Lebowski

Erich Wolfgang Korngold was the son of a well-known music critic. He was a child prodigy who composed his first orchestral piece at 14 and drew the attention of Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and many other prominent composers and conductors. He had begun a promising career as a serious composer of...

“ The Adventures of Robin Hood ” - smith-d-c

11.

James Horner

Music Department, Titanic

James Horner began studying piano at the age of five, and trained at the Royal College of Music in London, England, before moving to California in the 1970s. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music at USC, he would go on to earn his master's degree at UCLA and teach music theory there. He later completed his Ph.D...

“ Braveheart & Apollo 13 (tie) ” - smith-d-c

12.

Alfred Newman

Music Department, The King and I

“ How the West Was Won ” - smith-d-c

13.

Danny Elfman

Music Department, Corpse Bride

As Danny Elfman was growing up in the Los Angeles area, he was largely unaware of his talent for composing. It wasn't until the early 1970s that Danny and his older brother Richard Elfman started a musical troupe while in Paris; the group "Mystic Knights of Oingo-Boingo" was created for Richard's directorial debut...

“ Pee Wee's Big Adventure & Corpse Bride (tie) ” - smith-d-c

14.

Miklós Rózsa

Music Department, Ben-Hur

'Miklos Rozsa' studied the violin from the age of five. In 1926, he began studying at the Leipzig Conservatory. In 1929, his violin concerto was performed there. While living in Paris from 1931, Rozsa had his 'Variations on a Hungarian Peasant Song' and his 'Symphony and Serenade for Small Orchestra' performed...

“ Ben Hur ” - smith-d-c

15.

Henry Mancini

Soundtrack, The Big Lebowski

Born in Cleveland, Ohio, but brought up in Pennsylvania, where he played the flute in a local band, as a youth, before sending some arrangements to Benny Goodman. Goodman offered him a job and, after serving in WWII, he joined the rearranged Glenn Miller band. In 1952, he was given a two-week assignment...

“ Charade & A Shot in The Dark (tie) ” - smith-d-c

16.

Alan Silvestri

Composer, Forrest Gump

“ Forrest Gump & Back to the Future (tie) ” - smith-d-c

17.

Dimitri Tiomkin

Music Department, It's a Wonderful Life

Dimitri Tiomkin was a Russian Jewish composer who emigrated to America and became one of the most distinguished and best-loved music writers of Hollywood. He won a hallowed place in the pantheon of the most successful and productive composers in American film history, earning himself four Oscars and sixteen Academy Awards nominations...

“ High Noon ” - smith-d-c

18.

Howard Shore

Music Department, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

“ The Lord of the Rings & Ed Wood (tie) ” - smith-d-c

19.

Hugo Friedhofer

Music Department, Casablanca

Hugo Friedhofer -- how many times have you seen that name in the credits of 1930s and '40s movies for "orchestration" or "musical arranger" and thought -- Gee, what a busy guy! He was, and, ironically, much of that work went uncredited. He is not usually mentioned with the great film composers of early Hollywood...

“ The Best Years of Our Lives ” - smith-d-c

20.

Franz Waxman

Music Department, Stalag 17

Franz Waxman (Wachsmann) pursued his dream of a career in music despite his family's misgivings. He worked for several years as a bank teller and paid for piano, harmony and composition lessons with his salary. He later moved to Berlin, where he continued his study and progress as a musician. He was able to support himself by playing and arranging for a popular German jazz band...

“ The Bride of Frankenstein ” - smith-d-c

21.

James Newton Howard

Music Department, The Sixth Sense

James Newton Howard attended the University of Southern California's music school, but dropped out to tour with Elton John, and eventually compose music for film and television. He started with Head Office in 1985. He has been nominated for eight Academy Awards. He currently is a songwriter, record producer, conductor, keyboardist, and film composer.

“ The Fugitive ” - smith-d-c

22.

Randy Newman

Soundtrack, Toy Story 3

“ The Natural ” - smith-d-c

23.

Nino Rota

Composer, The Godfather

Born in Milan in 1911 into a family of musicians, Nino Rota was first a student of Orefice and Pizzetti. Then, still a child, he moved to Rome where he completed his studies at the Conservatory of Santa Cecilia in 1929 with Alfredo Casella. In the meantime, he had become an 'enfant prodige', famous both as a composer and as an orchestra conductor...

“ The Godfather & Romeo and Juliet (tie) ” - smith-d-c

24.

Leonard Bernstein

Soundtrack, Silver Linings Playbook

Renowned composer ("West Side Story", "Candide", "On The Town"), conductor, arranger, pianist, educator, author, TV/radio host, educated at the Boston Latin School and Harvard University (BA) with Walter Piston. Edward Burlingame Hill and A. Tillman Merritt. He studied piano with Helen Coates, Heinrich Gebhard and Isabelle Vengerova...

“ On the Waterfront ” - smith-d-c

25.

Sergei Prokofiev

Soundtrack, Children of Men

Prokofiev was a multi-talented man and an innovative composer. He learned piano from his mother and chess from his father. He always had a chess set on his piano, and was able to play against the chess champions of his time. He studied music with Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, graduated with highest marks from the St...

“ Alexander Nevsky ” - smith-d-c

26.

Michael Giacchino

Composer, Ratatouille

“ Lost

(I know it's television but, the score is a masterpiece!) ” - smith-d-c

27.

John Morris

Music Department, Young Frankenstein

“ Young Frankenstein ” - smith-d-c

28.

Thomas Newman

Music Department, WALL·E

“ American Beauty ” - smith-d-c

29.

Vangelis

Soundtrack, Collateral

Vangelis is a composer and performer who works almost exclusively with electronic instruments. He is probably most well know for his Chariots of Fire and Blade Runner soundtracks or for the tracks used in the Cosmos television series. He has been involved in many musical collaborations, the most famous that with Jon Anderson.

“ Chariots of Fire ” - smith-d-c

30.

Charles Chaplin

Writer, Modern Times

Charlie Chaplin, considered to be one of the most pivotal stars of the early days of Hollywood, lived an interesting life both in his films and behind the camera. He is most recognized as an icon of the silent film era, often associated with his popular "Little Tramp" character; the man with the toothbrush mustache...

“ City Lights ” - smith-d-c

31.

Victor Young

Soundtrack, Casino

Violinist and conductor Victor Young was a prolific composer and arranger, who worked on more than 300 film scores over a period of twenty years. He came from an impoverished, but musical background and was trained on the violin at the Warsaw Imperial Conservatory, later studying piano in Paris under the French master Isidor Philipp...

“ Shane ” - smith-d-c

32.

Herbert Stothart

Soundtrack, The Wizard of Oz

Of Scottish and German ancestry, Herbert Stothart was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1885. At first, he was slated for a career as a teacher of history. However, he became enamored with music while singing in a school choir, and again, later, while attending the University of Wisconsin. There, he...

“ Random Harvest ” - smith-d-c

33.

Leonard Rosenman

Music Department, Barry Lyndon

“ Star Trek IV The Voyage Home ” - smith-d-c

34.

Carter Burwell

Music Department, Fargo

“ Fargo & Miler's Crossing (tie) ” - smith-d-c

35.

Jerome Moross

Music Department, The Bishop's Wife

Brooklyn-born composer and orchestrator, who graduated from New York University at the age of eighteen. A child prodigy, he was already an accomplished pianist at the age of five and began composing music three years later. His first serious work ('Paens') was performed in public when he was seventeen...

“ The Big Country ” - smith-d-c

36.

Bill Conti

Music Department, Rocky Balboa

“ Rocky ” - smith-d-c

37.

Brian Easdale

Composer, The Red Shoes

Brian studied under Gordon Jacob and C. Armstrong Gibbs at the RCM (Royal College of Music). He wrote his first opera (Rapunzel) at the age of 17 and at age 20 had the honor of having a Dead March processional he had written performed by the London Symphony Orchestra under Sir 'Malcolm Sargent'. Brian...

“ The Red Shoes ” - smith-d-c

38.

Basil Poledouris

Composer, Starship Troopers

Basil Poledouris was born on August 21, 1945 in Kansas City. He started taking piano lessons when he was 7 years old. Eventually, he went on to become a student at USC, where he studied the arts of directing, cinematography, editing, sound and, of course, music. It was also at USC he met John Milius and Randal Kleiser...

“ Conan the Barbarian ” - smith-d-c

39.

Elliot Goldenthal

Composer, Heat

Elliot Goldenthal is an Academy Award-winning composer best known for his original music scores for such films as Frida and Across the Universe, among his other works. He was born on May 2, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a house-painter, and his mother was a seamstress. Young Goldenthal was fond of music and theatre...

“ Interview With A Vampire ” - smith-d-c

40.

Ron Goodwin

Composer, Where Eagles Dare

Ron Goodwin was born on 17th February 1925 in Plymouth. He was the son of a London policeman who was detached to the harbour-town. His mother felt that piano lessons would be a good pastime, so in his fifth year, the little Ron was hoisted onto a piano-stool and his education on this instrument began. Ron himself was at that time not really convinced about that parental ambition...

“ Where Eagles Dare ” - smith-d-c

41.

David Arnold

Music Department, Paul

“ Independence Day ” - smith-d-c

42.

Nicola Piovani

Composer, Life Is Beautiful

“ Life is Beautiful ” - smith-d-c

43.

Dave Grusin

Music Department, The Graduate

“ Murder By Death ” - smith-d-c

44.

Bruce Broughton

Music Department, Tombstone

Bruce Broughton composes in almost every medium, from theatrical motion pictures and television to computer games, in styles ranging from large symphonic settings ("Silverado") to contemporary electronic scores (the recently Emmy-nominated "The Dive from Clausen's Pier"). Broughton has written the scores...

“ Silverado ” - smith-d-c

45.

Aaron Copland

Soundtrack, Raging Bull

Aaron Copland is an Academy Award-winning composer (The Heiress), author, conductor, lecturer and educator. He was educated at public schools and was a music student of his sister and later Leopold Wolfson, Victor Wittgenstein, Clarence Adler, Rubin Goldmark and Nadia Boulanger. In 1925, he received the first Guggenheim fellowship awarded to a composer...

“ Of Mice and Men ” - smith-d-c

46.

Alex North

Music Department, Spartacus

Alex North studied music at the Curtis Institute of Philadelphia, then won a scholarship to Juillard in New York (1929) and the Moscow Conservatoire (1933), making him the first-ever American to become a member of the Union of Soviet Composers. In Europe, he worked as music director for the Latvian State Theatre...

“ Spartacus ” - smith-d-c

47.

Fumio Hayasaka

Composer, Seven Samurai

During his roughly 15-year-long career, Fumio Hayasaka composed scores for some of the biggest names in Japanese cinema and was regarded by many as the finest Japanese film composer alive. Many of his scores were written for no less a cinematic luminary than Akira Kurosawa, including the legendary director's breakthrough multiple-perspective masterpiece "Rashomon" (1950)...

“ The Seven Samurai ” - smith-d-c

48.

Ernest Gold

Music Department, It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World

Award-winning composer/songwriter ("Exodus" [Grammy/Academy Awards, 1960] ). He joined ASCAP in 1957, and his other popular-song compositions include the title songs for "On the Beach" and "It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World".

“ It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad, World ” - smith-d-c

49.

Lalo Schifrin

Music Department, Mission: Impossible

Immensely talented, Argentinian born pianist, conductor and composer who has written over 100 scores for both television & the cinema including the memorable themes to Mission: Impossible, Mannix, Starsky and Hutch, Cool Hand Luke, and Bullitt. Schifrin has regularly worked alongside Clint Eastwood...

“ Dirty Harry ” - smith-d-c

50.

Michael Kamen

Composer, Lethal Weapon

“ Die Hard ” - smith-d-c

51.

John Addison

Music Department, Sleuth

“ Tom Jones ” - smith-d-c

52.

Mikis Theodorakis

Soundtrack, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels

Mikis Theodorakis was born in the Greek island of Chios, in 1925. The exact same year that the other great composer of Greece was born in Xanthi, Manos Hatzidakis. He fought during the 2nd World War, and he was captured at the city of Tripoli. He was tortured, but when he was set free, he joined the partisan army of Greece named EAM...

“ Zorba The Greek ” - smith-d-c

53.

Anton Karas

Soundtrack, xXx

Anton Karas was a mere entertainer in an Heurige (Viennese Wine Bar), but Carol Reed selected him as the musical director of "The Third Man" (1949). He was invited to London and lived with Reed. Reed treated him very well, but Karas was in a slump - then suddenly Reed rushed into Karas' room, and lay at full length on the floor...

“ The Third Man ” - smith-d-c

54.

Jack Nitzsche

Soundtrack, Death Proof

“ One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest ” - smith-d-c

55.

John Ottman

Composer, X2

John Ottman holds dual distinctions as a leading film composer and an award winning film editor. Ottman has often completed both monumental tasks on the same films. Such remarkable double duties have included The Usual Suspects, X-Men 2, Superman Returns, Valkyrie, and Jack the Giant Killer. He has also held producer roles on several of these films...

“ The Usual Suspects ” - smith-d-c

56.

Randy Edelman

Music Department, 27 Dresses

“ Dragonheart ” - smith-d-c

57.

Rachel Portman

Composer, Chocolat

“ The Cider House Rules ” - smith-d-c

58.

Clint Mansell

Composer, Black Swan

“ Requiem for a Dream ” - smith-d-c

59.

Patrick Doyle

Actor, Brave

Patrick Doyle is a classically trained composer. His first film score, the acclaimed adaptation of "Henry V" with Kenneth Branagh for Renaissance films was scored in 1989. He has subsequently worked with Kenneth Branagh, a long time collaborator on numerous pictures including "Dead Again", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Frankenstein" and "Hamlet"...

“ Henry V ” - smith-d-c

60.

John Debney

Composer, Sin City

Academy award nominated John Debney is considered one of the most sought after composers in Hollywood. His unique ability to create memorable work across a variety of genres, as well as his reputation for being remarkably collaborative, have made him the first choice of top level producers and directors...

“ The Passion of the Christ ” - smith-d-c

61.

Georges Auric

Composer, Roman Holiday

At the least George Auric was a fine musician, having been a child prodigy, but he was much more in the musical world. He studied under Vincent D'Indy (a devotee of Cesar Franck and the German school of symphonic composition) and attended the Paris Conservatory (1920). By the time he was 20 he had orchestrated and written incidental music for ballets and the stage...

“ Beauty and the Beast (1946) ” - smith-d-c

62.

Alan Menken

Music Department, Aladdin

“ Beauty and the Beast ” - smith-d-c

63.

George Fenton

Music Department, Gandhi

“ Groundhog Day ” - smith-d-c

64.

Georges Delerue

Composer, Platoon

“ A Little Romance ” - smith-d-c

65.

Philip Glass

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Glass worked in his father's radio store and discovered music listening to the offbeat Western classical records customers didn't seem to want. He studied the violin and flute, and obtained early admission to the University of Chicago. After graduating in mathematics and philosophy...

“ The Illusionist ” - smith-d-c

66.

Jerry Fielding

Composer, The Bad News Bears

A three-time Oscar nominee, Jerry Fielding was among the boldest and most experimental of all Hollywood film composers. His music typically utilized advanced compositional procedures, producing dense, often richly dissonant orchestral textures, sometimes flavored with jazz. Fielding's film music career was marked by enduring and rewarding collaborations with Sam Peckinpah...

“ The Wild Bunch ” - smith-d-c

67.

Mark Mancina

Composer, Training Day

Known for his wide-ranging talents, Mark Mancina's film scores traverse almost every genre: drama, action, comedy, suspense, and period epic. His dark, edgy music for the Oscar-winning Training Day, is a benchmark score that expanded the boundaries of scoring street-wise drama, and is widely used as a temp track...

“ Speed ” - smith-d-c

68.

Quincy Jones

Music Department, The Wiz

Considered to be one of the greatest minds in music and television history, Quincy Delight Jones Jr was born on March 14, 1933 in Chicago,Illinois United States. Quincy Delight Jones Jr was born to carpenter, Quincy Delight Jones Sr, and bank executive Sarah Frances. Quincy Jones found his love for...

“ The Color Purple ” - smith-d-c

69.

Angelo Badalamenti

Music Department, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me

“ Muholland Drive ” - smith-d-c

70.

Klaus Badelt

Music Department, Gladiator

It has been a few years since Klaus' large-scale score to Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl defined the franchise and brought him worldwide mass attention. Since then, Klaus continues to write for major motion pictures with top-names like Wolfgang Petersen, Michael Mann, Richard Donner, Francis Lawrence and Harvey Weinstein...

“ Pirates of The Caribbean: The Curse of The Black Pearl ” - smith-d-c

71.

Bronislau Kaper

Composer, Mutiny on the Bounty

Born: February 5, 1902 in Warsaw, Poland Died: April 25, 1983 in Los Angeles, California, USA Kaper displayed musical talent as early as the age of seven when his family acquired a piano. His inclination to music led him to study both piano and composition, while also taking courses in law to satisfy his father...

“ Mutiny on the Bounty ” - smith-d-c

72.

Michel Legrand

Composer, Never Say Never Again

Michel Legrand is a three times Academy Award-winning French composer, conductor and pianist who composed over 200 film and television scores as well as recorded over a hundred albums of jazz, popular and classical music. He was born on February 24, 1932, in Becon-les-Bruyeres, in the Paris suburbs...

“ The Thomas Crown Affair ” - smith-d-c

73.

John Carpenter

Writer, Halloween

John Carpenter was born in Carthage, New York. His family moved to Bowling Green, Kentucky, where his father was the head of the music department at Western Kentucky University. He attended Western Kentucky University and then USC film school in Los Angeles, not the University of South Carolina. While there...

“ Halloween ” - smith-d-c

74.

Harold Faltermeyer

Soundtrack, Top Gun

“ Beverly Hills Cop ” - smith-d-c

75.

Eric Serra

Music Department, The Fifth Element

Eric Serra was born on September 9th, 1959 near Paris in France. His mother died when he was only 7 years old. His father, Claude Serra was a well-know songwriter in France in late 50s and 60s. Serra began to learn play the guitar at 11 years old and became a professional musician for Mory Kante;, Didier Lockwood and Michel Murty at 15 years old...

“ La Femme Nikita ” - smith-d-c

76.

Graeme Revell

Composer, Sin City

Graeme Revell was born in New Zealand in 1955. He was graduated from The University of Auckland with degrees in economics and politics. He is a classically trained pianist and French horn player. Revell worked for as a regional planner in Australia and Indonesia and as an orderly in an Australian psychiatric hospital...

“ The Crow ” - smith-d-c

77.

David Newman

Composer, Ice Age

“ Galaxy Quest ” - smith-d-c

78.

Marco Beltrami

Composer, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines

“ 3:10 to Yuma ” - smith-d-c

79.

Trevor Jones

Composer, Notting Hill

As a child in Cape Town, Trevor Jones lived opposite the Gem Cinema. The theater was so old and worn out that there was often a loss of the soundtrack, which caused him to realize its power. The fact that everyone in his family worked in film or the theater made it easy to get support in his career choice...

“ The Dark Crystal ” - smith-d-c

80.

Harry Gregson-Williams

Composer, Shrek

“ Shrek ” - smith-d-c

81.

Christopher Young

Composer, Spider-Man 3

“ Species ” - smith-d-c

82.

John Powell

Composer, Rio

“ The Bourne Identity ” - smith-d-c

83.

Clint Eastwood

Actor, Gran Torino

Perhaps the icon of macho movie stars, Clint Eastwood has become a standard in international cinema. Born in San Francisco, he is the son of Clinton Eastwood, Sr., a factory worker, and Ruth Wood (née Runner). The family frequently moved around Northern California when Clint was growing up before settling in Oregon...

“ Unforgiven ” - smith-d-c

84.

Peter Gabriel

Soundtrack, WALL·E

Peter Gabriel was educated at Charterhouse School, Surrey, England. He was the lead singer of leading art rock band Genesis from its inception until he left in 1975 for a successful solo career as a singer-songwriter, soundtrack composer and innovator in visual presentation of music, music videos and digital methods of recording and distributing music...

“ The Last Temptation of Christ ” - smith-d-c

85.

Tangerine Dream

Composer, Legend

“ Risky Business ” - smith-d-c

86.

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek

Composer, Finding Neverland

Jan A. P. Kaczmarek is a composer with a tremendous international reputation that continues to grow. As a successful recording artist and touring musician, Jan turned to composing film scores as his primary occupation. Jan's first success in the United States came in theater. After composing striking scores for productions at Chicago's Goodman Theatre and Los Angeles' Mark Taper Forum...

“ Finding Neverland ” - smith-d-c

87.

Alexandre Desplat

Composer, The King's Speech

“ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows ” - smith-d-c

88.

Nicholas Hooper

Composer, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

“ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix ” - smith-d-c

89.

Richard Robbins

Composer, The Remains of the Day

“ The Remains of the Day ” - smith-d-c

90.

Johnny Mandel

Music Department, MASH

“ M.A.S.H. ” - smith-d-c

91.

Carmine Coppola

Composer, The Godfather: Part III

Composer, conductor, arranger and flutist, educated at the Manhattan School of Music (BA, MA) and Juilliard (on scholarship) (MM). He was first flutist for Radio City Music Hall from 1934 to 1936, the Detroit Symphony from 1936 to 1941, the NBC Toscanini Orchestra from 1942 to 1948 and staff arranger for Radio City Music Hall from 1948 to 1956...

“ The Godfather Part II ” - smith-d-c

92.

Ira Newborn

Composer, Naked Gun 33 1/3: The Final Insult

“ The Naked Gun ” - smith-d-c

93.

Pino Donaggio

Composer, Carrie

Born in Venice, Italy, on October 24, 1941, into a family of musicians, Giuseppe "Pino" Donaggio began studying violin at the age of ten, first at the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory in Venice, followed by the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory in Milan. At the age of 14, he made his solo debut in a Vivaldi concert for Italian radio...

“ Body Double ” - smith-d-c

94.

Stewart Copeland

Composer, Wall Street

“ Wide Saragasso Sea ” - smith-d-c

95.

Gabriel Yared

Composer, The Talented Mr. Ripley

Gabriel Yared stopped his law studies at the age of 20 to work as a professional music composer. He studied with Henri Dutilleux and Maurice Ohana. He worked as a composer, orchestrator or producer for such singers as Françoise Hardy, Charles Aznavour, Gilbert Bécaud and Mireille Mathieu. He made his film debut in 1980 with the score for Jean-Luc Godard's Every Man for Himself...

“ The English Patient ” - smith-d-c

96.

Duke Ellington

Soundtrack, The Matrix

Composer ("It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing", "Sophisticated Lady", "Mood Indigo", "Solitude", "In a Mellotone", "Satin Doll"), pianist and conductor, holder of an honorary music degree from Wilberforce University and an LHD from Milton College, Duke Ellington led his own orchestra by 1918...

“ Anatomy of a Murder ” - smith-d-c

97.

Roger Edens

Soundtrack, Funny Face

“ Meet Me in St. Louis ” - smith-d-c

98.

Richard M. Sherman

Soundtrack, Iron Man 2

Richard Morton Sherman was born in the spring of 1928 in New York City to Rosa and Al Sherman. Together with his older brother, Robert B. Sherman, "The Sherman Brothers" would follow in their songwriting father's footsteps to form one of the most prolific, lauded and long lasting songwriting partnerships of all time...

“ and his brother Robert Sherman

Mary Poppins ” - smith-d-c

99.

Carl W. Stalling

Composer, Duck Amuck

Carl Stalling is the most famous unknown composer of the 20th century, almost solely based on his work composing musical scores for animated cartoons. Stalling's first work in music was as house organist in Newman Theatre in Kansas City, where he would accompany the latest silent film with his organ playing...

“ All the early Bugs Bunny Cartoons (genius) ” - smith-d-c

100.

Brad Fiedel

Music Department, True Lies

Extremely talented, prolific and versatile composer Brad Fiedel was born on March 10, 1951 in New York City. His mother was a dancer and his father was a composer and musician. Brad started out as a keyboardist for Hall & Oates. Fiedel first began composing music for movies in the mid-70s for such low-budget pictures as The Astrologer...

“ The Terminator ” - smith-d-c

Harry's Arctic Heroes (TV Documentary)

Happy Feet Two

The Dilemma (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

The Best Of Brand X Music

The Smurfs

Transformers - Dark Of The Moon (Expanded Score) [Bootleg Release]

Skylanders - Spyro's Adventure (VG)

The Sims 3 - Generations (VG)

Position Music - Orchestral Series Volume 7

L'Ordre Et La Morale

Seven Days In Utopia

X-Men - First Class

The Journey

Arthur Christmas

Dylan Dog - Dead Of Night

inFamous 2 - The Red Soundtrack (VG)

The Eagle (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

Game Of Thrones (TV Series - Season 1)

2010

How Do You Know (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

Robin Hood (Expanded Score) [Bootleg Release]

Medal Of Honor (VG) (Limited)

Husk

Gulliver's Travels (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

2009

The Boat That Rocked [Promotional Release]

The Code (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

Angels & Demons (Expanded Score) [Bootleg Release]

Transformers - Revenge Of The Fallen (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

It's Complicated (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

2006

The Da Vinci Code (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

2005

Into The West (TV Series)

2000

Mission - Impossible 2 (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

Gladiator (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

1995

Crimson Tide (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

1994

Speed (Limited)

1991

White Fang

Backdraft (Complete Score) [Bootleg Release]

1989

Black Rain (Limited)

Some of his other impressive scores include Pearl Harbor‚ The Ring‚4 films directed by Ridley Scott; Matchstick Men‚ Hannibal‚ Black Hawk Down and Thelma & Louise‚ Penny Marshall’s Riding In Cars With Boys and A League Of Their Own‚ Quentin Tarantino’s True Romance‚ Tears Of The Sun‚ Ron Howard’s Backdraft‚ Days Of Thunder‚ Smilla’s Sense Of Snow and the animated Spirit: Stallion Of The Cimarron for which he also co-wrote four of the songs with Bryan Adams‚ including the Golden Globe nominated “Here I Am.”

At the 27th annual Flanders International Film Festival‚ Zimmer performed live for the first time in concert with a 100-piece orchestra and a 100-piece choir. Choosing selections from his impressive body of work‚ Zimmer performed newly orchestrated concert versions of Gladiator‚ Mission: Impossible 2‚ Rain Man‚ The Lion King‚ and The Thin Red Line. The concert was recorded by Decca and released as a concert album entitled "The Wings Of A Film: The Music Of Hans Zimmer."

In 2003‚ Zimmer completed his 100th film score for the film The Last Samurai‚ starring Tom Cruise‚ for which he received both a Golden Globe and a Broadcast Film Critics nomination. Over the past year‚ Zimmer has scored Nancy Meyers’ comedy Something’s Gotta Give‚ the animated Dreamworks film‚ A Shark’s Tale (featuring voices of Will Smith‚ Renee Zellweger‚ Robert De Niro‚ Jack Black and Martin Scorsese)‚ and most recently‚ Jim Brooks’ Spanglish starring Adam Sandler and Tea Leoni (for which he also received a Golden Globe nomination). His upcoming projects include Paramount’s Weatherman starring Nicolas Cage‚ Dreamworks’ Madagascar and highly anticipated Warner Bros. summer release‚ Batman Begins.

Zimmer’s additional honors and awards include the prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award in Film Composition from the National Board of Review‚ and the Frederick Loewe Award in 2003 at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. He has also received ASCAP’s Henry Mancini Award for Lifetime Achievement. Hans and his wife live in Los Angeles and he is the father of 4.

HANS-ZIMMER.com © 2001-2013 OST

Click artwork to purchase album at Amazon.com

Rango

Megamind

Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2

Sherlock Holmes

February 24, 2011::

Alfred Music Publishing has recently published the INCEPTION songbook! Piano selections from Hans' Oscar-nominated score are now available from the Alfred website. Be sure to watch the Oscars this Sunday at 8pm EST/5pm PST on ABC!

February 22, 2011:

On March 4th, Paramount Pictures will release RANGO directed by Gore Verbinksi (PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN) with Johnny Depp voicing the lead role of the hero. RANGO is an original animated comedy-adventure that takes moviegoers for a hilarious and heartfelt walk in the Wild West. Music is composed by Hans Zimmer with original songs by Los Lobos.

The soundtrack, to be released by Anti Records, can be pre-ordered now with the official release on March 1st. For every pre-purchase and download of the album between now and March 8th, $1.00 will be donated to the organization Service Nation, a campaign to increase service opportunities and elevate service as a core ideal and problem-solving strategy in our society. You can enjoy the music and help a charity!

October 22, 2010::

The soundtrack to DreamWorks Animation's MEGAMIND, featuring music by Hans Zimmer and Lorne Balfe, will be released by Lakeshore Records on November 2! You can pre-order the album right now on Amazon.com. The film opens on Friday, November 5, nationwide!

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Change locationFilm score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Syncing

1.2.1 Digital Sequencer

1.2.2 Written Click Track

1.3 Writing

1.4 Orchestration

1.5 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 History

4 Composers

4.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

4.2 Other award nominees and winners

4.3 Box office champions

5 Production music

6 See also

6.1 Film music organizations

6.2 Film music review sites

6.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

6.4 Journals

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

[edit]Process of creation

[edit]Spotting

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

[edit]Syncing

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock, or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

[edit]Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

Import the video to score into Digital Performer

Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.

Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)

Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.

If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.

Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.

You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

[edit]Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or 2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

Once the composer has identified the location in the film they wish to sync with musically, they must determine the musical beat this event occurs on. To find this, they use the following equation, where bpm is beats per minute, sp is the sync point in real-time (i.e. 33.7 seconds), and B is the beat number in 1/3 increments (i.e. 49⅔).

[edit]Writing

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Digital Performer, Logic Pro, Cubase or Protools.[11] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

[edit]Orchestration

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" into instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing them to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score. In many cases, time constraints determined by the film's post-production schedule dictate whether composers orchestrate their own scores, as it is often impossible for the composer to complete all the required tasks within the timeframe allowed.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

[edit]Recording

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra (performing film music since 1935)[12] the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated mostly to recording), and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[13]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

[edit]Elements of a film score

[edit]Temp tracks

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[14] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[15] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[16] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[17] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore)[18] and The Bourne Identity (Carter Burwell).[19]

[edit]Structure

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[20] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. An example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details). Other examples are Italian composers Stefano Lentini and oscar's winner Ennio Morricone.[21] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[22] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

[edit]Source music

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[23] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter". Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

[edit]History

According to Kurt London, film music "began not as a result of any artistic urge, but from a dire need of something which would drown the noise made by the projector. For in those times there was as yet no sound-absorbent walls between the projection machine and the auditorium. This painful noise disturbed visual enjoyment to no small extent. Instinctively cinema proprietors had recourse to music, and it was the right way, using an agreeable sound to neutralize one less agreeable."[24]

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. A pianist was present to perform at the Lumiere brother's first film screening in 1895.[25] In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[26] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of photoplay music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 – music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer.

When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used music in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[27] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[27] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

[edit]Composers

[edit]Academy Award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Ludovic Bource (1 win)

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Mychael Danna (1 win)

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Lou Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Earle H. Hagen

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (2 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Marsha Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (2 wins)

Kris Kristofferson

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Muir Mathieson

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [1]

[edit]Other award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar for their scores [Songwriting nominations are not included in the Oscar nominees list]. Winners of an Award appear in bold.

Panu Aaltio

Neal Acree

Mark Adler

John Altman

Elik Alvarez

Armand Amar

Benny Andersson

Oscar Araujo

Craig Armstrong

David Arnold

Chris P. Bacon

Angelo Badalamenti

Klaus Badelt

Lorne Balfe

Roque Baños

Gato Barbieri

Lionel Bart

Steve Bartek

Ben Bartlett

Stephen Barton

Arnau Bataller

Tyler Bates

Jeff Beal

Christophe Beck

David Bell

Richard Bellis

Charles Bernstein

Howard Blake

Terence Blanchard

Todd Boekelheide

Pieter Bourke

Simon Boswell

Perry Botkin Jr.

Steven Bramson

Jon Brion

Michael Brook

Joseph Brooks

Russell Brower

Stephen Bruton

Velton Ray Bunch

T-Bone Burnett

Carter Burwell

Edmund Butt

Brian Byrne

Sean Callery

John Cameron

Paul Cantelon

Sam Cardon

John Carpenter

Dick Cathcart

Bartosz Chajdecki

Jay Chattaway

The Chemical Brothers

Sylvain Chomet

The Cinematic Orchestra

Eric Clapton

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Elia Cmiral

Robert Cobert

Harvey Cohen

Lisa Coleman

Michel Colombier

Joseph Conlan

Ry Cooder

Stewart Copeland

Normand Corbeil

Jane Antonia Cornish

Bruno Coulais

Daft Punk

Burkhard Dallwitz

Jeff Danna

Mason Daring

Martin Davich

Caine Davidson

Carl Davis

Don Davis

Paco de Lucía

Manuel De Sica

Zacarías M. de la Riva

Barry De Vorzon

Marius de Vries

Vince DiCola

James Di Pasquale

Neil Diamond

Ramin Djawadi

Nicholas Dodd

Jim Dooley

Joel Douek

Johnny Douglas

Charles Dumont

Robert Duncan

Bob Dylan

Clint Eastwood

Fred Ebb

Randy Edelman

Paul Englishby

Micky Erbe

Kolja Erdmann

Ilan Eshkeri

Harold Faltermeyer

Allyn Ferguson

Robert Folk

David Foster

Charles Fox

David Michael Frank

Benjamin Frankel

John Frizzell

Dominic Frontiere

Peter Gabriel

Pascal Gaigne

Brian Gascoigne

Lisa Gerrard

Barry Gibb

Scott Glasgow

Nick Glennie-Smith

Murray Gold

Nick Gold

Billy Goldenberg

Joel Goldsmith

Howard Goodall

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Gordon Goodwin

Christopher Gordon

Morton Gould

Gerald Gouriet

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves

Jonny Greenwood

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Herbert Grönemeyer

Guy Gross

Larry Groupé

Edo Guidotti

Christopher Gunning

Arlo Guthrie

Andrew Hale

Simon Hale

John P. Hammond

James Hannigan

Richard Hartley

Paul Haslinger

Knut Avenstroup Haugen

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Joe Hisaishi

Wataru Hokoyama

Lee Holdridge

Junior Homrich

Nellee Hooper

Nicholas Hooper

Richard Horowitz

Alan Howarth

Dick Hyman

Steve Jablonsky

Henry Jackman

Joe Jackson

Richard Jacques

Chaz Jankel

Elton John

Carl Johnson

Adrian Johnston

Nathan Johnson

Dan Jones

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones

Federico Jusid

Michael Kamen

John Kander

Laura Karpman

Victoria Kelly

Rolfe Kent

Wojciech Kilar

Kaki King

Grant Kirkhope

Kitaro

Johnny Klimek

Mark Knopfler

Krzysztof Komeda

Abel Korzeniowski

Henry Krieger

Kurt Kuenne

Jesper Kyd

Robert Lane

Christopher Lennertz

Brian Lock

Andrew Lockington

Joseph LoDuca

Henning Lohner

John Lunn

John Lurie

Nuno Malo

Johnny Mandel

Chuck Mangione

Hummie Mann

Clint Mansell

David Mansfield

Wynton Marsalis

Peter Martin

Cliff Martinez

Rob Mathes

Curtis Mayfield

Dennis McCarthy

Bear McCreary

Mark McKenzie

Joel McNeely

Gil Melle

Wendy Melvoin

Sheldon Mirowitz

Dudley Moore

Zeltia Montes

Tony Morales

Andrea Morricone

Trevor Morris

Mark Mothersbaugh

Nico Muhly

John Murphy

Walter Murphy

Stanley Myers

Blake Neely

Garth Neustadter

Lennie Niehaus

Julian Nott

Michael Nyman

Hazel O'Connor

Mike Oldfield

Miguel d'Oliveira

Riz Ortolani

Mark Orton

Karen Orzolek

John Ottman

Van Dyke Parks

Larry Paxton

James Peterson

Jean-Claude Petit

Barrington Pheloung

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

Martin Phipps

Douglas Pipes

Michael Richard Plowman

Basil Poledouris

Jocelyn Pook

Mike Post

Zbigniew Preisner

Alan Price

Michael Price

Nic Raine

Alfred Ralston

Brian Reitzell

Graeme Revell

Víctor Reyes

Jeff Richmond

Max Richter

Kevin Riepl

Sonny Rollins

Philippe Rombi

Harold Rome

Dan Romer

Jeff Rona

Brett Rosenberg

Lior Rosner

William Ross

Arthur B. Rubinstein

Pete Rugolo

The RZA

Arturo Sandoval

Naoki Sato

David Schwartz

Garry Schyman

Theodore Shapiro

Edward Shearmur

Freddy Sheinfeld

Philip Sheppard

Kevin Shields

David Shire

Ryan Shore

Clinton Shorter

Lawrence Shragge

Carlo Siliotto

Carly Simon

Paul Simon

Cezary Skubiszewski

Mark Snow

Johan Söderqvist

Maribeth Solomon

Jeremy Soule

Michael Stearns

Morton Stevens

Richard Stone

Marc Streitenfeld

Charles Strouse

Marty Stuart

Taj Mahal

Tamiya Terajima

Mikis Theodorakis

Third Ear Band

Mark Thomas

Yann Tiersen

Martin Tillmann

Chris Tilton

Pinar Toprak

Joseph Trapanese

Ernest Troost

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Bjorn Ulvaeus

Marc Vaíllo

Eddie Vedder

Fernando Velázquez

Lucas Vidal

Joseph Vitarelli

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden

Don Was

Shirley Walker

Mark Watters

Nigel Westlake

Norman Whitfield

Frederik Wiedmann

Kristin Wilkinson

Nancy Wilson

Stanley Wilson

Austin Wintory

Debbie Wiseman

Stevie Wonder

Christopher Wong

Alex Wurman

Timothy Michael Wynn

Christopher Young

Geoff Zanelli

Marcelo Zarvos

Benh Zeitlin

Aaron Zigman

Atli Örvarsson

Sources: HFPA Award Search [2], BAFTA Awards Database [3], Primetime Emmy Award Database [4], Grammy Awards Archive [5], IFMCA Awards Archive [6]

[edit]Box office champions

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Mark Mancina – Twister (1996)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010), The Smurfs (2011)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [7], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [8], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [9]

[edit]Production music

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Jingle Punks, Associated Production Music, VideoHelper and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers – they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was set up by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[28] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[29] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[30]

[edit]See also

film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

Musivisual Language

Sheet music

Theatre music

[edit]Film music organizations

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

PRS for Music - Performing rights organization (UK)

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

[edit]Film music review sites

Filmtracks.com

Soundtrack.net

[edit]Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

Varèse Sarabande

[edit]Journals

Film Score Monthly

[edit]References

^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

^ Film scoring

^ The Creators

^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

^ SMPTE

^ MOTU.com - Overview

^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8256-7308-5

^ London Symphony Orchestra and Film Music LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011

^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

^ The Bourne Identity

^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

^ Star Wars and Wagner's Ring

^ About The Film Music Society

^ The Functions of Film Music

^ London. Film Music, p.28. Faber and Faber. Cited in Albright, Daniel, ed. (2004). Modernism and Music, p.96n40. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

^ Film music: a history By James Eugene Wierzbicki, p.20

^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.[citation needed]

^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

[edit]Further reading

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Dorschel, Andreas (ed.). Tonspuren. Musik im Film: Fallstudien 1994 - 2001. Universal Edition, Vienna - London - New York 2005 (Studien zur Wertungsforschung 46). ISBN 3-7024-2885-2. Scrutinizes film score practice at the turn from the 20th to 21st century. In German.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

[edit]External links

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

Filmmusicsite (filmmusicsite.com)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net)

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de filmFilm score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Syncing

1.2.1 Digital Sequencer

1.2.2 Written Click Track

1.3 Writing

1.4 Orchestration

1.5 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 History

4 Composers

4.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

4.2 Other award nominees and winners

4.3 Box office champions

5 Production music

6 See also

6.1 Film music organizations

6.2 Film music review sites

6.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

6.4 Journals

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

[edit]Process of creation

[edit]Spotting

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

[edit]Syncing

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock, or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

[edit]Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

Import the video to score into Digital Performer

Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.

Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)

Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.

If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.

Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.

You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

[edit]Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or 2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

Once the composer has identified the location in the film they wish to sync with musically, they must determine the musical beat this event occurs on. To find this, they use the following equation, where bpm is beats per minute, sp is the sync point in real-time (i.e. 33.7 seconds), and B is the beat number in 1/3 increments (i.e. 49⅔).

[edit]Writing

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Digital Performer, Logic Pro, Cubase or Protools.[11] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

[edit]Orchestration

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" into instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing them to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score. In many cases, time constraints determined by the film's post-production schedule dictate whether composers orchestrate their own scores, as it is often impossible for the composer to complete all the required tasks within the timeframe allowed.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

[edit]Recording

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra (performing film music since 1935)[12] the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated mostly to recording), and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[13]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

[edit]Elements of a film score

[edit]Temp tracks

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[14] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[15] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[16] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[17] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore)[18] and The Bourne Identity (Carter Burwell).[19]

[edit]Structure

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[20] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. An example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details). Other examples are Italian composers Stefano Lentini and oscar's winner Ennio Morricone.[21] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[22] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

[edit]Source music

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[23] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter". Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

[edit]History

According to Kurt London, film music "began not as a result of any artistic urge, but from a dire need of something which would drown the noise made by the projector. For in those times there was as yet no sound-absorbent walls between the projection machine and the auditorium. This painful noise disturbed visual enjoyment to no small extent. Instinctively cinema proprietors had recourse to music, and it was the right way, using an agreeable sound to neutralize one less agreeable."[24]

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. A pianist was present to perform at the Lumiere brother's first film screening in 1895.[25] In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[26] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of photoplay music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 – music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer.

When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used music in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[27] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[27] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

[edit]Composers

[edit]Academy Award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Ludovic Bource (1 win)

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Mychael Danna (1 win)

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Lou Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Earle H. Hagen

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (2 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Marsha Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (2 wins)

Kris Kristofferson

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Muir Mathieson

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [1]

[edit]Other award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar for their scores [Songwriting nominations are not included in the Oscar nominees list]. Winners of an Award appear in bold.

Panu Aaltio

Neal Acree

Mark Adler

John Altman

Elik Alvarez

Armand Amar

Benny Andersson

Oscar Araujo

Craig Armstrong

David Arnold

Chris P. Bacon

Angelo Badalamenti

Klaus Badelt

Lorne Balfe

Roque Baños

Gato Barbieri

Lionel Bart

Steve Bartek

Ben Bartlett

Stephen Barton

Arnau Bataller

Tyler Bates

Jeff Beal

Christophe Beck

David Bell

Richard Bellis

Charles Bernstein

Howard Blake

Terence Blanchard

Todd Boekelheide

Pieter Bourke

Simon Boswell

Perry Botkin Jr.

Steven Bramson

Jon Brion

Michael Brook

Joseph Brooks

Russell Brower

Stephen Bruton

Velton Ray Bunch

T-Bone Burnett

Carter Burwell

Edmund Butt

Brian Byrne

Sean Callery

John Cameron

Paul Cantelon

Sam Cardon

John Carpenter

Dick Cathcart

Bartosz Chajdecki

Jay Chattaway

The Chemical Brothers

Sylvain Chomet

The Cinematic Orchestra

Eric Clapton

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Elia Cmiral

Robert Cobert

Harvey Cohen

Lisa Coleman

Michel Colombier

Joseph Conlan

Ry Cooder

Stewart Copeland

Normand Corbeil

Jane Antonia Cornish

Bruno Coulais

Daft Punk

Burkhard Dallwitz

Jeff Danna

Mason Daring

Martin Davich

Caine Davidson

Carl Davis

Don Davis

Paco de Lucía

Manuel De Sica

Zacarías M. de la Riva

Barry De Vorzon

Marius de Vries

Vince DiCola

James Di Pasquale

Neil Diamond

Ramin Djawadi

Nicholas Dodd

Jim Dooley

Joel Douek

Johnny Douglas

Charles Dumont

Robert Duncan

Bob Dylan

Clint Eastwood

Fred Ebb

Randy Edelman

Paul Englishby

Micky Erbe

Kolja Erdmann

Ilan Eshkeri

Harold Faltermeyer

Allyn Ferguson

Robert Folk

David Foster

Charles Fox

David Michael Frank

Benjamin Frankel

John Frizzell

Dominic Frontiere

Peter Gabriel

Pascal Gaigne

Brian Gascoigne

Lisa Gerrard

Barry Gibb

Scott Glasgow

Nick Glennie-Smith

Murray Gold

Nick Gold

Billy Goldenberg

Joel Goldsmith

Howard Goodall

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Gordon Goodwin

Christopher Gordon

Morton Gould

Gerald Gouriet

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves

Jonny Greenwood

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Herbert Grönemeyer

Guy Gross

Larry Groupé

Edo Guidotti

Christopher Gunning

Arlo Guthrie

Andrew Hale

Simon Hale

John P. Hammond

James Hannigan

Richard Hartley

Paul Haslinger

Knut Avenstroup Haugen

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Joe Hisaishi

Wataru Hokoyama

Lee Holdridge

Junior Homrich

Nellee Hooper

Nicholas Hooper

Richard Horowitz

Alan Howarth

Dick Hyman

Steve Jablonsky

Henry Jackman

Joe Jackson

Richard Jacques

Chaz Jankel

Elton John

Carl Johnson

Adrian Johnston

Nathan Johnson

Dan Jones

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones

Federico Jusid

Michael Kamen

John Kander

Laura Karpman

Victoria Kelly

Rolfe Kent

Wojciech Kilar

Kaki King

Grant Kirkhope

Kitaro

Johnny Klimek

Mark Knopfler

Krzysztof Komeda

Abel Korzeniowski

Henry Krieger

Kurt Kuenne

Jesper Kyd

Robert Lane

Christopher Lennertz

Brian Lock

Andrew Lockington

Joseph LoDuca

Henning Lohner

John Lunn

John Lurie

Nuno Malo

Johnny Mandel

Chuck Mangione

Hummie Mann

Clint Mansell

David Mansfield

Wynton Marsalis

Peter Martin

Cliff Martinez

Rob Mathes

Curtis Mayfield

Dennis McCarthy

Bear McCreary

Mark McKenzie

Joel McNeely

Gil Melle

Wendy Melvoin

Sheldon Mirowitz

Dudley Moore

Zeltia Montes

Tony Morales

Andrea Morricone

Trevor Morris

Mark Mothersbaugh

Nico Muhly

John Murphy

Walter Murphy

Stanley Myers

Blake Neely

Garth Neustadter

Lennie Niehaus

Julian Nott

Michael Nyman

Hazel O'Connor

Mike Oldfield

Miguel d'Oliveira

Riz Ortolani

Mark Orton

Karen Orzolek

John Ottman

Van Dyke Parks

Larry Paxton

James Peterson

Jean-Claude Petit

Barrington Pheloung

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

Martin Phipps

Douglas Pipes

Michael Richard Plowman

Basil Poledouris

Jocelyn Pook

Mike Post

Zbigniew Preisner

Alan Price

Michael Price

Nic Raine

Alfred Ralston

Brian Reitzell

Graeme Revell

Víctor Reyes

Jeff Richmond

Max Richter

Kevin Riepl

Sonny Rollins

Philippe Rombi

Harold Rome

Dan Romer

Jeff Rona

Brett Rosenberg

Lior Rosner

William Ross

Arthur B. Rubinstein

Pete Rugolo

The RZA

Arturo Sandoval

Naoki Sato

David Schwartz

Garry Schyman

Theodore Shapiro

Edward Shearmur

Freddy Sheinfeld

Philip Sheppard

Kevin Shields

David Shire

Ryan Shore

Clinton Shorter

Lawrence Shragge

Carlo Siliotto

Carly Simon

Paul Simon

Cezary Skubiszewski

Mark Snow

Johan Söderqvist

Maribeth Solomon

Jeremy Soule

Michael Stearns

Morton Stevens

Richard Stone

Marc Streitenfeld

Charles Strouse

Marty Stuart

Taj Mahal

Tamiya Terajima

Mikis Theodorakis

Third Ear Band

Mark Thomas

Yann Tiersen

Martin Tillmann

Chris Tilton

Pinar Toprak

Joseph Trapanese

Ernest Troost

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Bjorn Ulvaeus

Marc Vaíllo

Eddie Vedder

Fernando Velázquez

Lucas Vidal

Joseph Vitarelli

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden

Don Was

Shirley Walker

Mark Watters

Nigel Westlake

Norman Whitfield

Frederik Wiedmann

Kristin Wilkinson

Nancy Wilson

Stanley Wilson

Austin Wintory

Debbie Wiseman

Stevie Wonder

Christopher Wong

Alex Wurman

Timothy Michael Wynn

Christopher Young

Geoff Zanelli

Marcelo Zarvos

Benh Zeitlin

Aaron Zigman

Atli Örvarsson

Sources: HFPA Award Search [2], BAFTA Awards Database [3], Primetime Emmy Award Database [4], Grammy Awards Archive [5], IFMCA Awards Archive [6]

[edit]Box office champions

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Mark Mancina – Twister (1996)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010), The Smurfs (2011)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [7], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [8], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [9]

[edit]Production music

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Jingle Punks, Associated Production Music, VideoHelper and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers – they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was set up by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[28] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[29] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[30]

[edit]See also

film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

Musivisual Language

Sheet music

Theatre music

[edit]Film music organizations

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

PRS for Music - Performing rights organization (UK)

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

[edit]Film music review sites

Filmtracks.com

Soundtrack.net

[edit]Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

Varèse Sarabande

[edit]Journals

Film Score Monthly

[edit]References

^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

^ Film scoring

^ The Creators

^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

^ SMPTE

^ MOTU.com - Overview

^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8256-7308-5

^ London Symphony Orchestra and Film Music LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011

^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

^ The Bourne Identity

^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

^ Star Wars and Wagner's Ring

^ About The Film Music Society

^ The Functions of Film Music

^ London. Film Music, p.28. Faber and Faber. Cited in Albright, Daniel, ed. (2004). Modernism and Music, p.96n40. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

^ Film music: a history By James Eugene Wierzbicki, p.20

^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.[citation needed]

^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

[edit]Further reading

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Dorschel, Andreas (ed.). Tonspuren. Musik im Film: Fallstudien 1994 - 2001. Universal Edition, Vienna - London - New York 2005 (Studien zur Wertungsforschung 46). ISBN 3-7024-2885-2. Scrutinizes film score practice at the turn from the 20th to 21st century. In German.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

[edit]External links

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

Filmmusicsite (filmmusicsite.com)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net)

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazFilm score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Syncing

1.2.1 Digital Sequencer

1.2.2 Written Click Track

1.3 Writing

1.4 Orchestration

1.5 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 History

4 Composers

4.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

4.2 Other award nominees and winners

4.3 Box office champions

5 Production music

6 See also

6.1 Film music organizations

6.2 Film music review sites

6.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

6.4 Journals

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

[edit]Process of creation

[edit]Spotting

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

[edit]Syncing

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock, or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

[edit]Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

Import the video to score into Digital Performer

Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.

Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)

Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.

If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.

Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.

You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

[edit]Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or 2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

Once the composer has identified the location in the film they wish to sync with musically, they must determine the musical beat this event occurs on. To find this, they use the following equation, where bpm is beats per minute, sp is the sync point in real-time (i.e. 33.7 seconds), and B is the beat number in 1/3 increments (i.e. 49⅔).

[edit]Writing

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Digital Performer, Logic Pro, Cubase or Protools.[11] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

[edit]Orchestration

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" into instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing them to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score. In many cases, time constraints determined by the film's post-production schedule dictate whether composers orchestrate their own scores, as it is often impossible for the composer to complete all the required tasks within the timeframe allowed.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

[edit]Recording

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra (performing film music since 1935)[12] the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated mostly to recording), and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[13]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

[edit]Elements of a film score

[edit]Temp tracks

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[14] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[15] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[16] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[17] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore)[18] and The Bourne Identity (Carter Burwell).[19]

[edit]Structure

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[20] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. An example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details). Other examples are Italian composers Stefano Lentini and oscar's winner Ennio Morricone.[21] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[22] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

[edit]Source music

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[23] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter". Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

[edit]History

According to Kurt London, film music "began not as a result of any artistic urge, but from a dire need of something which would drown the noise made by the projector. For in those times there was as yet no sound-absorbent walls between the projection machine and the auditorium. This painful noise disturbed visual enjoyment to no small extent. Instinctively cinema proprietors had recourse to music, and it was the right way, using an agreeable sound to neutralize one less agreeable."[24]

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. A pianist was present to perform at the Lumiere brother's first film screening in 1895.[25] In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[26] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of photoplay music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 – music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer.

When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used music in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[27] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[27] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

[edit]Composers

[edit]Academy Award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Ludovic Bource (1 win)

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Mychael Danna (1 win)

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Lou Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Earle H. Hagen

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (2 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Marsha Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (2 wins)

Kris Kristofferson

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Muir Mathieson

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [1]

[edit]Other award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar for their scores [Songwriting nominations are not included in the Oscar nominees list]. Winners of an Award appear in bold.

Panu Aaltio

Neal Acree

Mark Adler

John Altman

Elik Alvarez

Armand Amar

Benny Andersson

Oscar Araujo

Craig Armstrong

David Arnold

Chris P. Bacon

Angelo Badalamenti

Klaus Badelt

Lorne Balfe

Roque Baños

Gato Barbieri

Lionel Bart

Steve Bartek

Ben Bartlett

Stephen Barton

Arnau Bataller

Tyler Bates

Jeff Beal

Christophe Beck

David Bell

Richard Bellis

Charles Bernstein

Howard Blake

Terence Blanchard

Todd Boekelheide

Pieter Bourke

Simon Boswell

Perry Botkin Jr.

Steven Bramson

Jon Brion

Michael Brook

Joseph Brooks

Russell Brower

Stephen Bruton

Velton Ray Bunch

T-Bone Burnett

Carter Burwell

Edmund Butt

Brian Byrne

Sean Callery

John Cameron

Paul Cantelon

Sam Cardon

John Carpenter

Dick Cathcart

Bartosz Chajdecki

Jay Chattaway

The Chemical Brothers

Sylvain Chomet

The Cinematic Orchestra

Eric Clapton

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Elia Cmiral

Robert Cobert

Harvey Cohen

Lisa Coleman

Michel Colombier

Joseph Conlan

Ry Cooder

Stewart Copeland

Normand Corbeil

Jane Antonia Cornish

Bruno Coulais

Daft Punk

Burkhard Dallwitz

Jeff Danna

Mason Daring

Martin Davich

Caine Davidson

Carl Davis

Don Davis

Paco de Lucía

Manuel De Sica

Zacarías M. de la Riva

Barry De Vorzon

Marius de Vries

Vince DiCola

James Di Pasquale

Neil Diamond

Ramin Djawadi

Nicholas Dodd

Jim Dooley

Joel Douek

Johnny Douglas

Charles Dumont

Robert Duncan

Bob Dylan

Clint Eastwood

Fred Ebb

Randy Edelman

Paul Englishby

Micky Erbe

Kolja Erdmann

Ilan Eshkeri

Harold Faltermeyer

Allyn Ferguson

Robert Folk

David Foster

Charles Fox

David Michael Frank

Benjamin Frankel

John Frizzell

Dominic Frontiere

Peter Gabriel

Pascal Gaigne

Brian Gascoigne

Lisa Gerrard

Barry Gibb

Scott Glasgow

Nick Glennie-Smith

Murray Gold

Nick Gold

Billy Goldenberg

Joel Goldsmith

Howard Goodall

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Gordon Goodwin

Christopher Gordon

Morton Gould

Gerald Gouriet

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves

Jonny Greenwood

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Herbert Grönemeyer

Guy Gross

Larry Groupé

Edo Guidotti

Christopher Gunning

Arlo Guthrie

Andrew Hale

Simon Hale

John P. Hammond

James Hannigan

Richard Hartley

Paul Haslinger

Knut Avenstroup Haugen

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Joe Hisaishi

Wataru Hokoyama

Lee Holdridge

Junior Homrich

Nellee Hooper

Nicholas Hooper

Richard Horowitz

Alan Howarth

Dick Hyman

Steve Jablonsky

Henry Jackman

Joe Jackson

Richard Jacques

Chaz Jankel

Elton John

Carl Johnson

Adrian Johnston

Nathan Johnson

Dan Jones

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones

Federico Jusid

Michael Kamen

John Kander

Laura Karpman

Victoria Kelly

Rolfe Kent

Wojciech Kilar

Kaki King

Grant Kirkhope

Kitaro

Johnny Klimek

Mark Knopfler

Krzysztof Komeda

Abel Korzeniowski

Henry Krieger

Kurt Kuenne

Jesper Kyd

Robert Lane

Christopher Lennertz

Brian Lock

Andrew Lockington

Joseph LoDuca

Henning Lohner

John Lunn

John Lurie

Nuno Malo

Johnny Mandel

Chuck Mangione

Hummie Mann

Clint Mansell

David Mansfield

Wynton Marsalis

Peter Martin

Cliff Martinez

Rob Mathes

Curtis Mayfield

Dennis McCarthy

Bear McCreary

Mark McKenzie

Joel McNeely

Gil Melle

Wendy Melvoin

Sheldon Mirowitz

Dudley Moore

Zeltia Montes

Tony Morales

Andrea Morricone

Trevor Morris

Mark Mothersbaugh

Nico Muhly

John Murphy

Walter Murphy

Stanley Myers

Blake Neely

Garth Neustadter

Lennie Niehaus

Julian Nott

Michael Nyman

Hazel O'Connor

Mike Oldfield

Miguel d'Oliveira

Riz Ortolani

Mark Orton

Karen Orzolek

John Ottman

Van Dyke Parks

Larry Paxton

James Peterson

Jean-Claude Petit

Barrington Pheloung

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

Martin Phipps

Douglas Pipes

Michael Richard Plowman

Basil Poledouris

Jocelyn Pook

Mike Post

Zbigniew Preisner

Alan Price

Michael Price

Nic Raine

Alfred Ralston

Brian Reitzell

Graeme Revell

Víctor Reyes

Jeff Richmond

Max Richter

Kevin Riepl

Sonny Rollins

Philippe Rombi

Harold Rome

Dan Romer

Jeff Rona

Brett Rosenberg

Lior Rosner

William Ross

Arthur B. Rubinstein

Pete Rugolo

The RZA

Arturo Sandoval

Naoki Sato

David Schwartz

Garry Schyman

Theodore Shapiro

Edward Shearmur

Freddy Sheinfeld

Philip Sheppard

Kevin Shields

David Shire

Ryan Shore

Clinton Shorter

Lawrence Shragge

Carlo Siliotto

Carly Simon

Paul Simon

Cezary Skubiszewski

Mark Snow

Johan Söderqvist

Maribeth Solomon

Jeremy Soule

Michael Stearns

Morton Stevens

Richard Stone

Marc Streitenfeld

Charles Strouse

Marty Stuart

Taj Mahal

Tamiya Terajima

Mikis Theodorakis

Third Ear Band

Mark Thomas

Yann Tiersen

Martin Tillmann

Chris Tilton

Pinar Toprak

Joseph Trapanese

Ernest Troost

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Bjorn Ulvaeus

Marc Vaíllo

Eddie Vedder

Fernando Velázquez

Lucas Vidal

Joseph Vitarelli

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden

Don Was

Shirley Walker

Mark Watters

Nigel Westlake

Norman Whitfield

Frederik Wiedmann

Kristin Wilkinson

Nancy Wilson

Stanley Wilson

Austin Wintory

Debbie Wiseman

Stevie Wonder

Christopher Wong

Alex Wurman

Timothy Michael Wynn

Christopher Young

Geoff Zanelli

Marcelo Zarvos

Benh Zeitlin

Aaron Zigman

Atli Örvarsson

Sources: HFPA Award Search [2], BAFTA Awards Database [3], Primetime Emmy Award Database [4], Grammy Awards Archive [5], IFMCA Awards Archive [6]

[edit]Box office champions

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Mark Mancina – Twister (1996)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010), The Smurfs (2011)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [7], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [8], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [9]

[edit]Production music

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Jingle Punks, Associated Production Music, VideoHelper and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers – they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was set up by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[28] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[29] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[30]

[edit]See also

film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

Musivisual Language

Sheet music

Theatre music

[edit]Film music organizations

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

PRS for Music - Performing rights organization (UK)

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

[edit]Film music review sites

Filmtracks.com

Soundtrack.net

[edit]Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

Varèse Sarabande

[edit]Journals

Film Score Monthly

[edit]References

^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

^ Film scoring

^ The Creators

^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

^ SMPTE

^ MOTU.com - Overview

^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8256-7308-5

^ London Symphony Orchestra and Film Music LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011

^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

^ The Bourne Identity

^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

^ Star Wars and Wagner's Ring

^ About The Film Music Society

^ The Functions of Film Music

^ London. Film Music, p.28. Faber and Faber. Cited in Albright, Daniel, ed. (2004). Modernism and Music, p.96n40. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

^ Film music: a history By James Eugene Wierzbicki, p.20

^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.[citation needed]

^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

[edit]Further reading

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Dorschel, Andreas (ed.). Tonspuren. Musik im Film: Fallstudien 1994 - 2001. Universal Edition, Vienna - London - New York 2005 (Studien zur Wertungsforschung 46). ISBN 3-7024-2885-2. Scrutinizes film score practice at the turn from the 20th to 21st century. In German.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

[edit]External links

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

Filmmusicsite (filmmusicsite.com)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net)

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film

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Film score

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer.

Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz, rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments.[2]

Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low-budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software.

Songs are usually not considered part of the film's score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although occasionally the score's composer will write an original pop song based on his themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

Contents [hide]

1 Process of creation

1.1 Spotting

1.2 Syncing

1.2.1 Digital Sequencer

1.2.2 Written Click Track

1.3 Writing

1.4 Orchestration

1.5 Recording

2 Elements of a film score

2.1 Temp tracks

2.2 Structure

2.3 Source music

3 History

4 Composers

4.1 Academy Award nominees and winners

4.2 Other award nominees and winners

4.3 Box office champions

5 Production music

6 See also

6.1 Film music organizations

6.2 Film music review sites

6.3 Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

6.4 Journals

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

[edit]Process of creation

[edit]Spotting

The composer usually enters the creative process towards the end of filming, at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot, especially when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music. The composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film, before the editing is completed, and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, and of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way. This process is known as "spotting".[4]

Occasionally, a film maker will actually edit his film to fit the flow of music, rather than the other way around, which is the norm. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music.[5] Similarly, the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended.[6]

In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture; Spielberg then re-edited the scene later to match the music.

In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards, without seeing the film itself, and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene. This approach is usually taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment specifically on a particular scene or nuance of a film, and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception;[7] composer Gustavo Santaolalla did the same thing when he wrote his Oscar-winning score for Brokeback Mountain.[8]

[edit]Syncing

When writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture. These include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes.[9]

When syncing music to picture, generally a leeway of 3-4 frames late or early allows the composer to be extremely accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either (a) a stop watch or studio size stopclock, or (b) watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings. These are represented visually by vertical lines (streamers) and bursts of light called punches. These are put on the film by the Music Editor at points specified by the composer. In both instances the timings on the clock or lines scribed on the film have corresponding timings which are also at specific points (beats) in the composer/conductor score.

[edit]Digital Sequencer

Using a digital sequencer such as Digital Performer, Logic, or Cubase, composers are able to sync music to picture with extreme accuracy using SMPTE timecode. Outlined below is one method using Digital Performer:[10]

Import the video to score into Digital Performer

Place a marker in the sequencer timeline where you wish to "hit" the event in the scene with music.

Note the SMPTE timecode (i.e. 01:00:15:23)

Note the start and end measure (bars+beats), and set it to an exact beat.

If the "end time" (timecode) field is greyed out, click the options button to open it up.

Enter the timecode where the downbeat will hit in the "end time" field.

You now will have synchronized an event in the film with a musical event, in time.

[edit]Written Click Track

A written click track is a method of writing bars of music in consistent time values (i.e. 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds) to establish a constant tempo in lieu of a metronome value (e.g. 88 Bpm). A composer would use a written click if they planned to conduct live performers. When using other methods such as a metronome, the conductor has a perfectly spaced click playing in his ear which he conducts to. This can yield stiff and lifeless performances in slower more expressive cues. You can convert a standard BPM value to a written click where X represents the number of beats per bar, and W represents time in seconds, by using the following equation:

Written clicks are expressed using 1/3 second increments, so the next step is to round the decimal to either 0, 1/3, or 2/3 of a second. The following is an example for 88 BPM:

2.72 rounds to 2.66, so the written click is 4 beats in :02⅔ seconds.

Once the composer has identified the location in the film they wish to sync with musically, they must determine the musical beat this event occurs on. To find this, they use the following equation, where bpm is beats per minute, sp is the sync point in real-time (i.e. 33.7 seconds), and B is the beat number in 1/3 increments (i.e. 49⅔).

[edit]Writing

Once the spotting session has been completed and the precise timings of each cue determined, the composer will then work on writing the score. The methods of writing the score vary from composer to composer; some composers prefer to work with a traditional pencil and paper, writing notes by hand on a staff and performing works-in-progress for the director on a piano, while other composers write on computers using sophisticated music composition software such as Digital Performer, Logic Pro, Cubase or Protools.[11] Working with software allows composers to create MIDI-based demos of cues, called MIDI mockups, for review by the filmmaker prior to the final orchestral recording.

The length of time a composer has to write the score varies from project to project; depending on the post-production schedule, a composer may have as little as two weeks, or as much as three months to write the score. In normal circumstances, the actual writing process usually lasts around six weeks from beginning to end.

The actual musical content of a film score is wholly dependent on the type of film being scored, and the emotions the director wishes the music to convey. A film score can encompass literally thousands of different combinations of instruments, ranging from full symphony orchestral ensembles to single solo instruments to rock bands to jazz combos, along with a multitude of ethnic and world music influences, soloists, vocalists, choirs and electronic textures. The style of the music being written also varies massively from project to project, and can be influenced by the time period in which the film is set, the geographic location of the film's action, and even the musical tastes of the characters. As part of their preparations for writing the score the composer will often research different musical techniques and genres as appropriate for that specific project; as such, it is not uncommon for established film composers to be proficient at writing music in dozens of different styles.

[edit]Orchestration

Once the music has been written, it must then be arranged or orchestrated in order for the ensemble to be able to perform it. The nature and level of orchestration varies from project to project and composer to composer, but in its basic form the orchestrator's job is to take the single-line music written by the composer and "flesh it out" into instrument-specific sheet music for each member of the orchestra to perform.

Some composers, notably Ennio Morricone, orchestrate their own scores themselves, without using an additional orchestrator. Some composers provide intricate details in how they want this to be accomplished, and will provide the orchestrator with copious notes outlining which instruments are being asked to perform which notes, giving the orchestrator no personal creative input whatsoever beyond re-notating the music on different sheets of paper as appropriate. Other composers are less detailed, and will often ask orchestrators to "fill in the blanks", providing their own creative input into the makeup of the ensemble, ensuring that each instrument is capable of performing the music as written, and even allowing them to introduce performance techniques and flourishes to enhance the score. In many cases, time constraints determined by the film's post-production schedule dictate whether composers orchestrate their own scores, as it is often impossible for the composer to complete all the required tasks within the timeframe allowed.

Over the years several orchestrators have become linked to the work of one particular composer, often to the point where one will not work without the other. Examples of enduring composer-orchestrator relationships include Jerry Goldsmith with Arthur Morton, Alexander Courage and Herbert W. Spencer; Miklos Rozsa with Eugene Zador; Alfred Newman with Edward Powell, Ken Darby and Hugo Friedhofer; Danny Elfman with Steve Bartek; David Arnold with Nicholas Dodd; Basil Poledouris with Greig McRitchie; and Elliot Goldenthal with Robert Elhai. Others have become orchestrators-for-hire, and work with many different composers over the course of their careers; examples of prominent film music orchestrators include Pete Anthony, Jeff Atmajian, Brad Dechter, Bruce Fowler, John Neufeld, Thomas Pasatieri, Conrad Pope, Nic Raine and J.A.C. Redford.

Once the orchestration process has been completed, the sheet music is physically printed onto paper by one or more music copyists, and is ready for performance.

[edit]Recording

When the music has been composed and orchestrated, the orchestra or ensemble then performs it, often with the composer conducting. Musicians for these ensembles are often uncredited in the film or on the album and are contracted individually (and if so, the orchestra contractor is credited in the film or the soundtrack album). However, some films have recently begun crediting the contracted musicians on the albums under the name Hollywood Studio Symphony after an agreement with the American Federation of Musicians. Other performing ensembles that are often employed include the London Symphony Orchestra (performing film music since 1935)[12] the City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra (an orchestra dedicated mostly to recording), and the Northwest Sinfonia.[citation needed]

The orchestra performs in front of a large screen depicting the movie, and sometimes to a series of clicks called a "click-track" that changes with meter and tempo, assisting the conductor to synchronize the music with the film.[13]

More rarely, the director will talk to the composer before shooting has started, so as to give more time to the composer or because the director needs to shoot scenes (namely song or dance scenes) according to the final score. Sometimes the director will have edited the film using "temp (temporary) music": already published pieces with a character that the director believes to fit specific scenes.

[edit]Elements of a film score

[edit]Temp tracks

In some instances, film composers have been asked by the director to imitate a specific composer or style present in the temp track.[14] On other occasions, directors have become so attached to the temp score that they decide to use it and reject the original score written by the film composer. One of the most famous cases is Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, where Kubrick opted for existing recordings of classical works, including pieces by composer György Ligeti rather than the score by Alex North,[15] although Kubrick had also hired Frank Cordell to do a score. While North's 2001 is indeed a major example, it is not the sole case of well-known rejected scores. Others include Torn Curtain (Bernard Herrmann),[16] Troy (Gabriel Yared),[17] Peter Jackson's King Kong (Howard Shore)[18] and The Bourne Identity (Carter Burwell).[19]

[edit]Structure

Films often have different themes for important characters, events, ideas or objects, an idea often associated with Wagner's use of leitmotif.[20] These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent, scattered amongst incidental music. An example of this technique is John Williams' score for the Star Wars saga, and the numerous themes associated with characters like Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, and Princess Leia Organa (see Star Wars music for more details). Other examples are Italian composers Stefano Lentini and oscar's winner Ennio Morricone.[21] The Lord of the Rings trilogy uses a similar technique, with recurring themes for many main characters and places. Others are less known by casual moviegoers, but well known among score enthusiasts, such as Jerry Goldsmith's underlying theme for the Borg in Star Trek: First Contact, or his Klingon theme from Star Trek: The Motion Picture which other composers carry over into their Klingon motifs, and he has brought back on numerous occasions as the theme for Worf, Star Trek: The Next Generation's most prominent Klingon.[citation needed] Michael Giacchino employed character themes in the soundtrack for the 2009 animated film Up, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Score. His orchestral soundtrack for the television series Lost also depended heavily on character and situation-specific themes.

In 1983, a non-profit organization, the Society for the Preservation of Film Music, was formed to preserve the "byproducts" of creating a film score:[22] the music manuscripts (written music) and other documents and studio recordings generated in the process of composing and recording scores which, in some instances, have been discarded by the movie studios. The written music must be kept to perform the music on concert programs and to make new recordings of it. Sometimes only after decades has an archival recording of a film score been released on CD.

[edit]Source music

Most films have between 40 and 120 minutes of music. However, some films have very little or no music; others may feature a score that plays almost continuously throughout. Dogme 95 is a genre that has music only from sources within a film, such as from a radio or television. This is called "source music" (or a "source cue") because it comes from an on screen source that can actually be seen or that can be inferred (in academic film theory such music is called "diegetic" music, as it emanates from the "diegesis" or "story world").[23] An example of "source music" is the use of the Frankie Valli song "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" in Michael Cimino's "The Deer Hunter". Alfred Hitchcock's 1963 thriller The Birds is an example of a Hollywood film with no non-diegetic music whatsoever.

[edit]History

According to Kurt London, film music "began not as a result of any artistic urge, but from a dire need of something which would drown the noise made by the projector. For in those times there was as yet no sound-absorbent walls between the projection machine and the auditorium. This painful noise disturbed visual enjoyment to no small extent. Instinctively cinema proprietors had recourse to music, and it was the right way, using an agreeable sound to neutralize one less agreeable."[24]

Before the age of recorded sound in motion pictures, efforts were taken to provide suitable music for films, usually through the services of an in-house pianist or organist, and, in some cases, entire orchestras, typically given cue sheets as a guide. A pianist was present to perform at the Lumiere brother's first film screening in 1895.[25] In 1914, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company sent full-length scores by Louis F. Gottschalk for their films. Other examples of this include Victor Herbert's score in 1915 to The Fall of a Nation (a sequel to The Birth of a Nation) and Camille Saint-Saëns' music for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise in 1908. It was preceded by Nathaniel D. Mann's score for The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays by four months, but that was a mixture of interrelated stage and film performance in the tradition of old magic lantern shows.[26] Most accompaniments at this time, these examples notwithstanding, comprised pieces by famous composers, also including studies. These were often used to form catalogues of photoplay music, which had different subsections broken down by 'mood' and/or genre: dark, sad, suspense, action, chase, etc.

German cinema, which was highly influential in the era of silent movies, provided some original scores such as Fritz Lang's movies Die Nibelungen (1924) and Metropolis (1927) which were accompanied by original full scale orchestral and leitmotific scores written by Gottfried Huppertz, who also wrote piano-versions of his music, for playing in smaller cinemas.[citation needed] Friedrich W. Murnau's movies Nosferatu (1922 - music by Hans Erdmann) and Faust – eine deutsche Volkssage (1926 – music by Werner Richard Heymann) also had original scores written for them. Other films like Murnau's Der letzte Mann contained a mixing of original compositions (in this case by Giuseppe Becce) and library music / folk tunes, which were artistically included into the score by the composer.

When sound came to movies, director Fritz Lang barely used music in his movies anymore. Apart from Peter Lorre whistling a short piece from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt, Lang's movie M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder was lacking musical accompaniment completely and Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse only included one original piece written for the movie by Hans Erdmann played at the very beginning and end of the movie. One of the rare occasions on which music occurs in the movie is a song one of the characters sings, that Lang uses to put emphasis on the man's insanity, similar to the use of the whistling in M.

Though "the scoring of narrative features during the 1940s lagged decades behind technical innovations in the field of concert music,"[27] the 1950s saw the rise of the modernist film score. Director Elia Kazan was open to the idea of jazz influences and dissonant scoring and worked with Alex North, whose score for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) combined dissonance with elements of blues and jazz. Kazan also approached Leonard Bernstein to score On the Waterfront (1954) and the result was reminiscent of earlier works by Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky with its "jazz-based harmonies and exciting additive rhythms."[27] A year later, Leonard Rosenman, inspired by Arnold Schoenberg, experimented with atonality in his scores for East of Eden (1955) and Rebel Without a Cause (1955). In his ten-year collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock, Bernard Herrmann experimented with ideas in Vertigo (1958) and Psycho (1960). The use of non-diegetic jazz was another modernist innovation, such as jazz star Duke Ellington's score for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959).

[edit]Composers

[edit]Academy Award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for an Academy Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the Best Original Score category (which, over the years, had gone by a variety of names, included song scores and arrangements, and been split into awards for scoring in dramas and comedies). Winners of the Award appear in bold. Note: Composers whose only Oscar nominations came in the Best Original Song category are not listed, and Best Original Song wins are not counted in the wins tally.

John Addison (1 win)

Larry Adler

Peter Herman Adler

Lynn Ahrens

Daniele Amfitheatrof

Louis Applebaum

Robert Armbruster

Leo Arnaud

Malcolm Arnold (1 win)

Kenny Ascher

Gil Askey

Luis Enríquez Bacalov (1 win)

Burt Bacharach (1 win)

Constantin Bakaleinikoff

Buddy Baker

Victor Baravalle

John Barry (4 wins)

Marco Beltrami

Richard Rodney Bennett

Robert Russell Bennett (1 win)

Alan Bergman (1 win)

Marilyn Bergman (1 win)

Elmer Bernstein (1 win)

Leonard Bernstein

Jay Blackton (1 win)

Chris Boardman

Ludovic Bource (1 win)

Phil Boutelje

Leslie Bricusse (1 win)

Bruce Broughton

George Bruns

Ralph Burns (2 wins)

Dale Butts

David Byrne (1 win)

Jorge Calandrelli

John Cameron

Gerard Carbonara

Charlie Chaplin (1 win)

Saul Chaplin (3 wins)

Frank Churchill (1 win)

Cy Coleman

Anthony Collins

Alberto Colombo

Bill Conti (1 win)

Aaron Copland (1 win)

Carmine Coppola (1 win)

Frank Cordell

John Corigliano (1 win)

Alexander Courage

Andrae Crouch

Mychael Danna (1 win)

Ken Darby (3 wins)

John Debney

Georges Delerue (1 win)

Jacques Demy

Alexandre Desplat

Adolph Deutsch (3 wins)

Frank DeVol

Robert Emmett Dolan

Patrick Doyle

Carmen Dragon (1 win)

Anne Dudley (1 win)

Tan Dun (1 win)

George Duning

Brian Easdale (1 win)

Roger Edens (3 wins)

Hanns Eisler

Danny Elfman

Duke Ellington

Jack Elliott

Leo Erdody

Yuri Faier

Percy Faith

George Fenton

Cy Feuer

Jerry Fielding

Stephen Flaherty

Lou Forbes

Ian Fraser

Gerald Fried

Hugo Friedhofer (1 win)

Douglas Gamley

Joseph Gershenson

Michael Giacchino (1 win)

Herschel Burke Gilbert

Philip Glass

Lud Gluskin

Ernest Gold (1 win)

Elliot Goldenthal (1 win)

Jerry Goldsmith (1 win)

Michael Gore (1 win)

Johnny Green (4 wins)

Walter Greene

Peter Greenwell

Ferde Grofe

Louis Gruenberg

Dave Grusin (1 win)

Vince Guaraldi

Jonas Gwangwa

Earle H. Hagen

Richard Hageman (1 win)

Karl Hajos

Al Ham

Marvin Hamlisch (2 win)

Herbie Hancock (1 win)

Leigh Harline (1 win)

W. Franke Harling (1 win)

George Harrison (1 win)

Marvin Hatley

Isaac Hayes

Jack Hayes

Lennie Hayton (1 win)

Ray Heindorf (3 wins)

Charles Henderson

Bernard Herrmann (1 win)

Jerry Hey

Werner Heymann

David Hirschfelder

Joel Hirschhorn

Samuel Hoffenstein

Frederick Hollander

James Horner (1 win)

James Newton Howard

Alberto Iglesias

Mark Isham

Calvin Jackson

Werner Janssen

Maurice Jarre (3 wins)

Quincy Jones

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek (1 win)

Gus Kahn (1 win)

Bronislau Kaper (1 win)

Fred Karlin

Marsha Karlin

Al Kasha

Edward Kay

Roger Kellaway

Randy Kerber

Jerome Kern

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (2 wins)

Irwin Kostal (2 wins)

Kris Kristofferson

Francis Lai (1 win)

Arthur Lange

Michel Legrand (2 wins)

John Leipold (1 win)

John Lennon (1 win)

Alan Jay Lerner

Joseph J. Lilley

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Frederick Loewe

Jeremy Lubbock

Michel Magne

Henry Mancini (2 wins)

Dario Marianelli (1 win)

George Martin

Muir Mathieson

Peter Matz

Peter Maxwell Davies

Toshiro Mayuzumi

Paul McCartney (1 win)

Rod McKuen

Bill Melendez

Alan Menken (4 wins)

Gian-Carlo Menotti

Johnny Mercer

Mahlon Merrick

Michel Michelet

Cyril J. Mockridge

Lucien Moraweck

Angela Morley

Giorgio Moroder (1 win)

Jerome Moross

Ennio Morricone (Honorary Oscar)

John Morris

Boris Morros

Jeff Moss

Javier Navarrete

Anthony Newley

Alfred Newman (9 wins)

David Newman

Emil Newman

Lionel Newman (1 win)

Randy Newman

Thomas Newman

Jack Nitzsche

Alex North (Honorary Oscar)

Edward Paul

Frank Perkins

Nicola Piovani (1 win)

Edward H. Plumb

Rachel Portman (1 win)

John Powell

André Previn (5 wins)

Charles Previn

Prince (1 win)

A.R. Rahman (1 win)

David Raksin

Sid Ramin (1 win)

Raymond Rasch (1 win)

Joe Renzetti (1 win)

Trent Reznor (1 win)

Frederic E. Rich

Nelson Riddle (1 win)

Hugo Riesenfeld

Richard Robbins

Milan Roder

Heinz Roemheld (1 win)

Ann Ronell

David Rose

Joel Rosenbaum

Leonard Rosenman (2 wins)

Laurence Rosenthal

Atticus Ross (1 win)

Nino Rota (1 win)

Gennadi Rozhdestvensky

Miklós Rózsa (3 wins)

Larry Russell (1 win)

Ryuichi Sakamoto (1 win)

Conrad Salinger

Hans J. Salter

Buck Sanders

Gustavo Santaolalla (2 wins)

Philippe Sarde

Walter Scharf

Victor Schertzinger (1 win)

Lalo Schifrin

Stephen Schwartz (1 win)

Morton Scott

Caiphus Semenya

Marc Shaiman

Ravi Shankar

Artie Shaw

Al Shean

Richard M. Sherman (1 win)

Robert B. Sherman (1 win)

Nathaniel Shilkret

Howard Shore (2 wins)

Dimitri Shostakovich

Leo Shuken (1 win)

Louis Silvers (1 win)

Alan Silvestri

Marlin Skiles

Frank Skinner

Paul J. Smith (1 win)

Herbert W. Spencer

Ringo Starr (1 win)

Fred Steiner

Max Steiner (3 wins)

Leith Stevens

Georgie Stoll (1 win)

Morris Stoloff (3 wins)

Robert Stolz

Gregory Stone

Herbert Stothart (1 win)

Cong Su (1 win)

Harry Sukman (1 win)

Alexander Tansman

Rod Temperton

Max Terr

Ken Thorne (1 win)

Dimitri Tiomkin (3 wins)

Ernst Toch

Peter Townshend

John Scott Trotter

Jonathan Tunick (1 win)

Vangelis (1 win)

Tom Waits

Don Walker

Oliver Wallace (1 win)

William Walton

Stephen Warbeck (1 win)

Edward Ward

Ned Washington (1 win)

Franz Waxman (2 wins)

Kenneth Webb

Roy Webb

Kurt Weill

Jerry Wexler

Matthew Wilder

John Williams (5 wins)

Patrick Williams

Paul Williams

Meredith Willson

Charles Wolcott

Albert Woodbury

Gabriel Yared (1 win)

Victor Young (1 win)

Hans Zimmer (1 win)

David Zippel

Source: The Official Academy Awards Database [1]

[edit]Other award nominees and winners

The following list includes all composers who have been nominated for one of the other major film music awards (Golden Globes, BAFTA Awards, Grammy Awards, Emmy Awards, International Film Music Critics Association), but have never been nominated for an Oscar for their scores [Songwriting nominations are not included in the Oscar nominees list]. Winners of an Award appear in bold.

Panu Aaltio

Neal Acree

Mark Adler

John Altman

Elik Alvarez

Armand Amar

Benny Andersson

Oscar Araujo

Craig Armstrong

David Arnold

Chris P. Bacon

Angelo Badalamenti

Klaus Badelt

Lorne Balfe

Roque Baños

Gato Barbieri

Lionel Bart

Steve Bartek

Ben Bartlett

Stephen Barton

Arnau Bataller

Tyler Bates

Jeff Beal

Christophe Beck

David Bell

Richard Bellis

Charles Bernstein

Howard Blake

Terence Blanchard

Todd Boekelheide

Pieter Bourke

Simon Boswell

Perry Botkin Jr.

Steven Bramson

Jon Brion

Michael Brook

Joseph Brooks

Russell Brower

Stephen Bruton

Velton Ray Bunch

T-Bone Burnett

Carter Burwell

Edmund Butt

Brian Byrne

Sean Callery

John Cameron

Paul Cantelon

Sam Cardon

John Carpenter

Dick Cathcart

Bartosz Chajdecki

Jay Chattaway

The Chemical Brothers

Sylvain Chomet

The Cinematic Orchestra

Eric Clapton

Alf Clausen

George S. Clinton

Elia Cmiral

Robert Cobert

Harvey Cohen

Lisa Coleman

Michel Colombier

Joseph Conlan

Ry Cooder

Stewart Copeland

Normand Corbeil

Jane Antonia Cornish

Bruno Coulais

Daft Punk

Burkhard Dallwitz

Jeff Danna

Mason Daring

Martin Davich

Caine Davidson

Carl Davis

Don Davis

Paco de Lucía

Manuel De Sica

Zacarías M. de la Riva

Barry De Vorzon

Marius de Vries

Vince DiCola

James Di Pasquale

Neil Diamond

Ramin Djawadi

Nicholas Dodd

Jim Dooley

Joel Douek

Johnny Douglas

Charles Dumont

Robert Duncan

Bob Dylan

Clint Eastwood

Fred Ebb

Randy Edelman

Paul Englishby

Micky Erbe

Kolja Erdmann

Ilan Eshkeri

Harold Faltermeyer

Allyn Ferguson

Robert Folk

David Foster

Charles Fox

David Michael Frank

Benjamin Frankel

John Frizzell

Dominic Frontiere

Peter Gabriel

Pascal Gaigne

Brian Gascoigne

Lisa Gerrard

Barry Gibb

Scott Glasgow

Nick Glennie-Smith

Murray Gold

Nick Gold

Billy Goldenberg

Joel Goldsmith

Howard Goodall

Miles Goodman

Ron Goodwin

Gordon Goodwin

Christopher Gordon

Morton Gould

Gerald Gouriet

Ron Grainer

Jason Graves

Jonny Greenwood

Harry Gregson-Williams

Rupert Gregson-Williams

Mark Griskey

Herbert Grönemeyer

Guy Gross

Larry Groupé

Edo Guidotti

Christopher Gunning

Arlo Guthrie

Andrew Hale

Simon Hale

John P. Hammond

James Hannigan

Richard Hartley

Paul Haslinger

Knut Avenstroup Haugen

Neal Hefti

Reinhold Heil

Joe Hisaishi

Wataru Hokoyama

Lee Holdridge

Junior Homrich

Nellee Hooper

Nicholas Hooper

Richard Horowitz

Alan Howarth

Dick Hyman

Steve Jablonsky

Henry Jackman

Joe Jackson

Richard Jacques

Chaz Jankel

Elton John

Carl Johnson

Adrian Johnston

Nathan Johnson

Dan Jones

Ron Jones

Trevor Jones

Federico Jusid

Michael Kamen

John Kander

Laura Karpman

Victoria Kelly

Rolfe Kent

Wojciech Kilar

Kaki King

Grant Kirkhope

Kitaro

Johnny Klimek

Mark Knopfler

Krzysztof Komeda

Abel Korzeniowski

Henry Krieger

Kurt Kuenne

Jesper Kyd

Robert Lane

Christopher Lennertz

Brian Lock

Andrew Lockington

Joseph LoDuca

Henning Lohner

John Lunn

John Lurie

Nuno Malo

Johnny Mandel

Chuck Mangione

Hummie Mann

Clint Mansell

David Mansfield

Wynton Marsalis

Peter Martin

Cliff Martinez

Rob Mathes

Curtis Mayfield

Dennis McCarthy

Bear McCreary

Mark McKenzie

Joel McNeely

Gil Melle

Wendy Melvoin

Sheldon Mirowitz

Dudley Moore

Zeltia Montes

Tony Morales

Andrea Morricone

Trevor Morris

Mark Mothersbaugh

Nico Muhly

John Murphy

Walter Murphy

Stanley Myers

Blake Neely

Garth Neustadter

Lennie Niehaus

Julian Nott

Michael Nyman

Hazel O'Connor

Mike Oldfield

Miguel d'Oliveira

Riz Ortolani

Mark Orton

Karen Orzolek

John Ottman

Van Dyke Parks

Larry Paxton

James Peterson

Jean-Claude Petit

Barrington Pheloung

Stu Phillips

Winifred Phillips

Martin Phipps

Douglas Pipes

Michael Richard Plowman

Basil Poledouris

Jocelyn Pook

Mike Post

Zbigniew Preisner

Alan Price

Michael Price

Nic Raine

Alfred Ralston

Brian Reitzell

Graeme Revell

Víctor Reyes

Jeff Richmond

Max Richter

Kevin Riepl

Sonny Rollins

Philippe Rombi

Harold Rome

Dan Romer

Jeff Rona

Brett Rosenberg

Lior Rosner

William Ross

Arthur B. Rubinstein

Pete Rugolo

The RZA

Arturo Sandoval

Naoki Sato

David Schwartz

Garry Schyman

Theodore Shapiro

Edward Shearmur

Freddy Sheinfeld

Philip Sheppard

Kevin Shields

David Shire

Ryan Shore

Clinton Shorter

Lawrence Shragge

Carlo Siliotto

Carly Simon

Paul Simon

Cezary Skubiszewski

Mark Snow

Johan Söderqvist

Maribeth Solomon

Jeremy Soule

Michael Stearns

Morton Stevens

Richard Stone

Marc Streitenfeld

Charles Strouse

Marty Stuart

Taj Mahal

Tamiya Terajima

Mikis Theodorakis

Third Ear Band

Mark Thomas

Yann Tiersen

Martin Tillmann

Chris Tilton

Pinar Toprak

Joseph Trapanese

Ernest Troost

Tom Tykwer

Brian Tyler

Bjorn Ulvaeus

Marc Vaíllo

Eddie Vedder

Fernando Velázquez

Lucas Vidal

Joseph Vitarelli

W.G. "Snuffy" Walden

Don Was

Shirley Walker

Mark Watters

Nigel Westlake

Norman Whitfield

Frederik Wiedmann

Kristin Wilkinson

Nancy Wilson

Stanley Wilson

Austin Wintory

Debbie Wiseman

Stevie Wonder

Christopher Wong

Alex Wurman

Timothy Michael Wynn

Christopher Young

Geoff Zanelli

Marcelo Zarvos

Benh Zeitlin

Aaron Zigman

Atli Örvarsson

Sources: HFPA Award Search [2], BAFTA Awards Database [3], Primetime Emmy Award Database [4], Grammy Awards Archive [5], IFMCA Awards Archive [6]

[edit]Box office champions

The following list includes all composers who have scored one of the 100 Highest Grossing Films of All Time, but have never been nominated for a major award (Oscar, Golden Globe etc.)

William Alwyn – Swiss Family Robinson (1960)

David Buttolph – House of Wax (1953)

Brad Fiedel – Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Alexander Janko – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Bill Justis – Smokey and the Bandit (1977)

Harald Kloser – The Day After Tomorrow (2004), 2012 (2009)

Mark Mancina – Twister (1996)

Heitor Pereira – Despicable Me (2010), The Smurfs (2011)

Trevor Rabin – Armageddon (1998), National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)

Pharrell Williams – Despicable Me (2010)

Chris Wilson – My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

Source: Box Office Mojo – All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses [7], All-Time Domestic Box Office Grosses Adjusted for Inflation [8], All-Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses [9]

[edit]Production music

Main article: Production music

Many companies such as Jingle Punks, Associated Production Music, VideoHelper and Extreme Music provide music to various film, TV and commercial projects for a fee. Sometimes called library music, the music is owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis.[citation needed] Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers – they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate.

Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to find much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The first production music library was set up by De Wolfe in 1927 with the advent of sound in film, the company originally scored music for use in silent film.[28] Another music library was set up by Ralph Hawkes of Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers in the 1930s.[29] APM, the largest US library, has over 250,000 tracks.[30]

[edit]See also

film portal

AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores

Filmi, Bollywood film music

List of film score composers

Musivisual Language

Sheet music

Theatre music

[edit]Film music organizations

ASCAP - Performing rights organization

BMI - Performing rights organization

PRS for Music - Performing rights organization (UK)

Film Musicians Secondary Markets Fund

Society of Composers and Lyricists

[edit]Film music review sites

Filmtracks.com

Soundtrack.net

[edit]Independent specialist original soundtrack recording labels

1M1 Records

Digitmovies AE

Film Score Monthly

Intrada Records

La-La Land Records

Milan Records

MovieScore Media

Perseverance Records

Prometheus Records

Trunk Records

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How Film Composers Work

by Diane Dannenfeldt

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John Williams was responsible for many memorable scores including the original "Star Wars" trilogy and "Jaws." He performed at the "Movies Rock" celebration.

© Kevin Winter/Getty Images

Becoming a Film Composer

If you're thinking of becoming a film composer, you probably love movies and are a talented musician who enjoys composing. And based on responses of 12 film composers to a Variety magazine question, you've probably felt that way for a long time. Most film music composers describe themselves as writing music and being inspired by a movie before they reached high school [source: Variety].

But, as you may suspect, there's no specific way to become a movie composer. Well-known, award-winning movie music composers have taken different paths in building their careers. For example:

John Williams is a five-time Oscar winner for best original score and composer for more than 100 movies, including the "Star Wars," "Indiana Jones" and "Harry Potter"­ series. He studied piano at Juillard and then played in New York clubs as a jazz pianist. He started in films by working with Bernard Herrmann and other film composers.­

Howard Shore has won Oscars for the original scores of two "Lord of the Rings" movies. He graduated from Berklee College of Music, played in the jazz group Lighthouse and then became musical director for "Saturday Night Live." His work in film began with a collaboration with director David Cronenburg that has continued through 12 films.

Danny Elfman is a self-taught musician who led the rock group Oingo Boingo. He has scored most of director Tim Burton's movies and many others, including "Batman Returns" (1992) and the "Spider-Man" and "Men in Black" series.

If you plan to follow their examples, here are a few tips that may help you with a career as a film composer:

Get a degree in music or a related entertainment field. Going to a school with a film program, like University of Southern California or New York University, or a music school that offers a film scoring major, like Berklee, can help you learn about the film industry and the technical aspects of composing -- and help you connect with student directors for immediate film projects and future contacts.

Work on different types of films. The rare film composer starts on feature films. You'll probably start with commercials, student films, trailers and other smaller projects. Varied types of films and varied musical styles make for a broader portfolio to appeal to directors and producers.

Make connections with directors and others in the film industry who may be able to offer you work or know someone who can. Building relationships with directors is particularly important because they often will collaborate with a single composer for many of their films.

Build a strong portfolio that demonstrates what you can do. Directors and producers are unlikely to listen to more than 20 minutes of sample work, so you may want to create themed demo CDs of your work. You'll be able to send different ones, depending on the type of music that is wanted. But remember that directors and producers are more likely to be interested in your film credits than your music.

Go where the jobs are. Although the Internet makes long-distance work relationships possible, most film composers need to be in the same location as the directors and editors they work with. Most of the jobs are in southern California or New York.

Finally, be persistent if this is the career you want. With talent, education, contacts and some luck, you could wind up composing one of those movie themes that lingers long after the closing credits fade.

For lots more information about film composers and related topics, see the links on the next page.

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[edit]Journals

Film Score Monthly

[edit]References

^ Savage, Mark. "Where Are the New Movie Themes?" BBC, 28 July 2008.

^ "Bebe Barron: Co-composer of the first electronic film score, for 'Forbidden Planet'". The Independent (London). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

^ Rockwell, John (21 May 1978). "When the Soundtrack Makes the Film". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-10.

^ Film scoring

^ The Creators

^ SoundtrackNet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Soundtrack

^ We Built Our Own World: Hans Zimmer and the Music of 'Inception'

^ TIMBT: Gustavo Santolalla interview

^ SMPTE

^ MOTU.com - Overview

^ Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second Thoughts: The New Film Scoring Process. Schirmer Trade Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8256-7308-5

^ London Symphony Orchestra and Film Music LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011

^ Home Recording Glossary: Click Track

^ George Burt, The art of film music, Northeastern University Press

^ 2001 A Space Odyssey - Original soundtrack by Alex North, commissioned but unused by Stanley Kubrick, conducted by Jerry Goldsmith

^ SoundtrackNet: Torn Curtain Soundtrack

^ SoundtrackNet: Article - Gabriel Yared's Troy

^ Music on Film:: News:: Article in Variety about James Newton Howard's King Kong score

^ The Bourne Identity

^ leitmotif - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

^ Star Wars and Wagner's Ring

^ About The Film Music Society

^ The Functions of Film Music

^ London. Film Music, p.28. Faber and Faber. Cited in Albright, Daniel, ed. (2004). Modernism and Music, p.96n40. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

^ Film music: a history By James Eugene Wierzbicki, p.20

^ Fairylogue was released 24 September 1908; Assassinat was released 17 November 1908

^ a b Cooke, Mervyn (2008). A History of Film Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.[citation needed]

^ De Wolfe, Warren (1988). de wolfe millennium catalogue. London: De Wolfe Music.

^ Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes The Publishing Story. London: B&H London. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.[citation needed]

^ "PRWeb July 2007". Retrieved 2007-07-20.

[edit]Further reading

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The Greatest Film Composers of All Time & Their Best Movie

by smith-d-c created 07 Aug 2011 | last updated - 07 Aug 2011

(Don't take the ranking seriously after the 1st 20 names. I am fond of them all.)

Showing all 100 People Sort by:

View:

1.

Bernard Herrmann

Music Department, Citizen Kane

The man behind the low woodwinds that open Citizen Kane, the shrieking violins of Psycho, and the plaintive saxophone of Taxi Driver was one of the most original and distinctive composers ever to work in film. He started early, winning a composition prize at the age of 13 and founding his own orchestra at the age of 20...

“ Vertigo & Psycho (tie)

The greatest composer of all time who is able to get inside the thoughts of a character. ” - smith-d-c

2.

John Williams

Music Department, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace

As one of the best known, awarded, and financially successful composers in US history, John Williams is as easy to recall as John Philip Sousa, Aaron Copland or Leonard Bernstein, illustrating why he is "America's composer" time and again. With a massive list of awards that includes over 41 Oscar nominations (five wins)...

“ Star Wars

It is basically a tie for first place. Williams represents all that I love about the movies and was a huge part of my growing up. ” - smith-d-c

3.

Ennio Morricone

Composer, The Untouchables

A classmate of director Sergio Leone with whom he would form one of the great director/composer partnerships (right up there with Eisenstein & Prokofiev, Hitchcock & Herrmann, Fellini & Rota), Ennio Morricone studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory, where he specialized in trumpet. His first film scores were relatively undistinguished...

“ The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly ” - smith-d-c

4.

John Barry

Music Department, Diamonds Are Forever

John Barry was born in York, England in 1933, and was the youngest of three children. His father, Jack, owned several local cinemas and by the age of fourteen, Barry was capable of running the projection box on his own - in particular, The Rialto in York. As he was brought up in a cinematic environment...

“ From Russia With Love

(Has all the Bond themes in one movie) ” - smith-d-c

5.

Elmer Bernstein

Music Department, Cape Fear

Elmer Bernstein was educated at the Walden School and New York University. He served in the US Army Air Corps in World War II. A prolific and respected film music composer, he was a protégé of Aaron Copland, who studied music with Roger Sessions and Stefan Wolpe. Bernstein worked in various artistic endeavors...

“ The Magnificent Seven ” - smith-d-c

6.

Maurice Jarre

Composer, Ghost

Unlike many musicians who started to learn music while still in their childhood, Maurice Jarre was already late in his teens when he discovered music and decided to make a career in that field. Against his father's will, he enrolled at Conservatoire de Paris where he studied percussions, composition and harmonies...

“ Lawrence of Arabia ” - smith-d-c

7.

Max Steiner

Composer, Casablanca

Austrian composer who achieved legendary status as the creator of hundreds of classic American film scores. As a child he was astonishingly musically gifted, composing complex works as a teenager and completing the course of study at Vienna's Hochschule fuer Musik und Darstellende Kunst in only one year...

“ Gone With The Wind ” - smith-d-c

8.

Jerry Goldsmith

Music Department, Mulan

Born on February 10, 1929, Jerry Goldsmith studied piano with Jakob Gimpel and composition, theory, and counterpoint with Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. He also attended classes in film composition given by Miklós Rózsa at the Univeristy of Southern California. In 1950, he was employed as a clerk typist in the music department at CBS...

“ Patton ” - smith-d-c

9.

Hans Zimmer

Music Department, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl

German-born composer Hans Zimmer is recognized as one of Hollywood's most innovative musical talents, having first enjoyed success in the world of pop music as a member of The Buggles. The group's single Video Killed the Radio Star became a worldwide hit and helped usher in a new era of global entertainment as the first music video to be aired on MTV...

“ Gladiator & The Lion King (tie) ” - smith-d-c

10.

Erich Wolfgang Korngold

Soundtrack, The Big Lebowski

Erich Wolfgang Korngold was the son of a well-known music critic. He was a child prodigy who composed his first orchestral piece at 14 and drew the attention of Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and many other prominent composers and conductors. He had begun a promising career as a serious composer of...

“ The Adventures of Robin Hood ” - smith-d-c

11.

James Horner

Music Department, Titanic

James Horner began studying piano at the age of five, and trained at the Royal College of Music in London, England, before moving to California in the 1970s. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music at USC, he would go on to earn his master's degree at UCLA and teach music theory there. He later completed his Ph.D...

“ Braveheart & Apollo 13 (tie) ” - smith-d-c

12.

Alfred Newman

Music Department, The King and I

“ How the West Was Won ” - smith-d-c

13.

Danny Elfman

Music Department, Corpse Bride

As Danny Elfman was growing up in the Los Angeles area, he was largely unaware of his talent for composing. It wasn't until the early 1970s that Danny and his older brother Richard Elfman started a musical troupe while in Paris; the group "Mystic Knights of Oingo-Boingo" was created for Richard's directorial debut...

“ Pee Wee's Big Adventure & Corpse Bride (tie) ” - smith-d-c

14.

Miklós Rózsa

Music Department, Ben-Hur

'Miklos Rozsa' studied the violin from the age of five. In 1926, he began studying at the Leipzig Conservatory. In 1929, his violin concerto was performed there. While living in Paris from 1931, Rozsa had his 'Variations on a Hungarian Peasant Song' and his 'Symphony and Serenade for Small Orchestra' performed...

“ Ben Hur ” - smith-d-c

15.

Henry Mancini

Soundtrack, The Big Lebowski

Born in Cleveland, Ohio, but brought up in Pennsylvania, where he played the flute in a local band, as a youth, before sending some arrangements to Benny Goodman. Goodman offered him a job and, after serving in WWII, he joined the rearranged Glenn Miller band. In 1952, he was given a two-week assignment...

“ Charade & A Shot in The Dark (tie) ” - smith-d-c

16.

Alan Silvestri

Composer, Forrest Gump

“ Forrest Gump & Back to the Future (tie) ” - smith-d-c

17.

Dimitri Tiomkin

Music Department, It's a Wonderful Life

Dimitri Tiomkin was a Russian Jewish composer who emigrated to America and became one of the most distinguished and best-loved music writers of Hollywood. He won a hallowed place in the pantheon of the most successful and productive composers in American film history, earning himself four Oscars and sixteen Academy Awards nominations...

“ High Noon ” - smith-d-c

18.

Howard Shore

Music Department, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

“ The Lord of the Rings & Ed Wood (tie) ” - smith-d-c

19.

Hugo Friedhofer

Music Department, Casablanca

Hugo Friedhofer -- how many times have you seen that name in the credits of 1930s and '40s movies for "orchestration" or "musical arranger" and thought -- Gee, what a busy guy! He was, and, ironically, much of that work went uncredited. He is not usually mentioned with the great film composers of early Hollywood...

“ The Best Years of Our Lives ” - smith-d-c

20.

Franz Waxman

Music Department, Stalag 17

Franz Waxman (Wachsmann) pursued his dream of a career in music despite his family's misgivings. He worked for several years as a bank teller and paid for piano, harmony and composition lessons with his salary. He later moved to Berlin, where he continued his study and progress as a musician. He was able to support himself by playing and arranging for a popular German jazz band...

“ The Bride of Frankenstein ” - smith-d-c

21.

James Newton Howard

Music Department, The Sixth Sense

James Newton Howard attended the University of Southern California's music school, but dropped out to tour with Elton John, and eventually compose music for film and television. He started with Head Office in 1985. He has been nominated for eight Academy Awards. He currently is a songwriter, record producer, conductor, keyboardist, and film composer.

“ The Fugitive ” - smith-d-c

22.

Randy Newman

Soundtrack, Toy Story 3

“ The Natural ” - smith-d-c

23.

Nino Rota

Composer, The Godfather

Born in Milan in 1911 into a family of musicians, Nino Rota was first a student of Orefice and Pizzetti. Then, still a child, he moved to Rome where he completed his studies at the Conservatory of Santa Cecilia in 1929 with Alfredo Casella. In the meantime, he had become an 'enfant prodige', famous both as a composer and as an orchestra conductor...

“ The Godfather & Romeo and Juliet (tie) ” - smith-d-c

24.

Leonard Bernstein

Soundtrack, Silver Linings Playbook

Renowned composer ("West Side Story", "Candide", "On The Town"), conductor, arranger, pianist, educator, author, TV/radio host, educated at the Boston Latin School and Harvard University (BA) with Walter Piston. Edward Burlingame Hill and A. Tillman Merritt. He studied piano with Helen Coates, Heinrich Gebhard and Isabelle Vengerova...

“ On the Waterfront ” - smith-d-c

25.

Sergei Prokofiev

Soundtrack, Children of Men

Prokofiev was a multi-talented man and an innovative composer. He learned piano from his mother and chess from his father. He always had a chess set on his piano, and was able to play against the chess champions of his time. He studied music with Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, graduated with highest marks from the St...

“ Alexander Nevsky ” - smith-d-c

26.

Michael Giacchino

Composer, Ratatouille

“ Lost

(I know it's television but, the score is a masterpiece!) ” - smith-d-c

27.

John Morris

Music Department, Young Frankenstein

“ Young Frankenstein ” - smith-d-c

28.

Thomas Newman

Music Department, WALL·E

“ American Beauty ” - smith-d-c

29.

Vangelis

Soundtrack, Collateral

Vangelis is a composer and performer who works almost exclusively with electronic instruments. He is probably most well know for his Chariots of Fire and Blade Runner soundtracks or for the tracks used in the Cosmos television series. He has been involved in many musical collaborations, the most famous that with Jon Anderson.

“ Chariots of Fire ” - smith-d-c

30.

Charles Chaplin

Writer, Modern Times

Charlie Chaplin, considered to be one of the most pivotal stars of the early days of Hollywood, lived an interesting life both in his films and behind the camera. He is most recognized as an icon of the silent film era, often associated with his popular "Little Tramp" character; the man with the toothbrush mustache...

“ City Lights ” - smith-d-c

31.

Victor Young

Soundtrack, Casino

Violinist and conductor Victor Young was a prolific composer and arranger, who worked on more than 300 film scores over a period of twenty years. He came from an impoverished, but musical background and was trained on the violin at the Warsaw Imperial Conservatory, later studying piano in Paris under the French master Isidor Philipp...

“ Shane ” - smith-d-c

32.

Herbert Stothart

Soundtrack, The Wizard of Oz

Of Scottish and German ancestry, Herbert Stothart was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1885. At first, he was slated for a career as a teacher of history. However, he became enamored with music while singing in a school choir, and again, later, while attending the University of Wisconsin. There, he...

“ Random Harvest ” - smith-d-c

33.

Leonard Rosenman

Music Department, Barry Lyndon

“ Star Trek IV The Voyage Home ” - smith-d-c

34.

Carter Burwell

Music Department, Fargo

“ Fargo & Miler's Crossing (tie) ” - smith-d-c

35.

Jerome Moross

Music Department, The Bishop's Wife

Brooklyn-born composer and orchestrator, who graduated from New York University at the age of eighteen. A child prodigy, he was already an accomplished pianist at the age of five and began composing music three years later. His first serious work ('Paens') was performed in public when he was seventeen...

“ The Big Country ” - smith-d-c

36.

Bill Conti

Music Department, Rocky Balboa

“ Rocky ” - smith-d-c

37.

Brian Easdale

Composer, The Red Shoes

Brian studied under Gordon Jacob and C. Armstrong Gibbs at the RCM (Royal College of Music). He wrote his first opera (Rapunzel) at the age of 17 and at age 20 had the honor of having a Dead March processional he had written performed by the London Symphony Orchestra under Sir 'Malcolm Sargent'. Brian...

“ The Red Shoes ” - smith-d-c

38.

Basil Poledouris

Composer, Starship Troopers

Basil Poledouris was born on August 21, 1945 in Kansas City. He started taking piano lessons when he was 7 years old. Eventually, he went on to become a student at USC, where he studied the arts of directing, cinematography, editing, sound and, of course, music. It was also at USC he met John Milius and Randal Kleiser...

“ Conan the Barbarian ” - smith-d-c

39.

Elliot Goldenthal

Composer, Heat

Elliot Goldenthal is an Academy Award-winning composer best known for his original music scores for such films as Frida and Across the Universe, among his other works. He was born on May 2, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a house-painter, and his mother was a seamstress. Young Goldenthal was fond of music and theatre...

“ Interview With A Vampire ” - smith-d-c

40.

Ron Goodwin

Composer, Where Eagles Dare

Ron Goodwin was born on 17th February 1925 in Plymouth. He was the son of a London policeman who was detached to the harbour-town. His mother felt that piano lessons would be a good pastime, so in his fifth year, the little Ron was hoisted onto a piano-stool and his education on this instrument began. Ron himself was at that time not really convinced about that parental ambition...

“ Where Eagles Dare ” - smith-d-c

41.

David Arnold

Music Department, Paul

“ Independence Day ” - smith-d-c

42.

Nicola Piovani

Composer, Life Is Beautiful

“ Life is Beautiful ” - smith-d-c

43.

Dave Grusin

Music Department, The Graduate

“ Murder By Death ” - smith-d-c

44.

Bruce Broughton

Music Department, Tombstone

Bruce Broughton composes in almost every medium, from theatrical motion pictures and television to computer games, in styles ranging from large symphonic settings ("Silverado") to contemporary electronic scores (the recently Emmy-nominated "The Dive from Clausen's Pier"). Broughton has written the scores...

“ Silverado ” - smith-d-c

45.

Aaron Copland

Soundtrack, Raging Bull

Aaron Copland is an Academy Award-winning composer (The Heiress), author, conductor, lecturer and educator. He was educated at public schools and was a music student of his sister and later Leopold Wolfson, Victor Wittgenstein, Clarence Adler, Rubin Goldmark and Nadia Boulanger. In 1925, he received the first Guggenheim fellowship awarded to a composer...

“ Of Mice and Men ” - smith-d-c

46.

Alex North

Music Department, Spartacus

Alex North studied music at the Curtis Institute of Philadelphia, then won a scholarship to Juillard in New York (1929) and the Moscow Conservatoire (1933), making him the first-ever American to become a member of the Union of Soviet Composers. In Europe, he worked as music director for the Latvian State Theatre...

“ Spartacus ” - smith-d-c

47.

Fumio Hayasaka

Composer, Seven Samurai

During his roughly 15-year-long career, Fumio Hayasaka composed scores for some of the biggest names in Japanese cinema and was regarded by many as the finest Japanese film composer alive. Many of his scores were written for no less a cinematic luminary than Akira Kurosawa, including the legendary director's breakthrough multiple-perspective masterpiece "Rashomon" (1950)...

“ The Seven Samurai ” - smith-d-c

48.

Ernest Gold

Music Department, It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World

Award-winning composer/songwriter ("Exodus" [Grammy/Academy Awards, 1960] ). He joined ASCAP in 1957, and his other popular-song compositions include the title songs for "On the Beach" and "It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World".

“ It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad, World ” - smith-d-c

49.

Lalo Schifrin

Music Department, Mission: Impossible

Immensely talented, Argentinian born pianist, conductor and composer who has written over 100 scores for both television & the cinema including the memorable themes to Mission: Impossible, Mannix, Starsky and Hutch, Cool Hand Luke, and Bullitt. Schifrin has regularly worked alongside Clint Eastwood...

“ Dirty Harry ” - smith-d-c

50.

Michael Kamen

Composer, Lethal Weapon

“ Die Hard ” - smith-d-c

51.

John Addison

Music Department, Sleuth

“ Tom Jones ” - smith-d-c

52.

Mikis Theodorakis

Soundtrack, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels

Mikis Theodorakis was born in the Greek island of Chios, in 1925. The exact same year that the other great composer of Greece was born in Xanthi, Manos Hatzidakis. He fought during the 2nd World War, and he was captured at the city of Tripoli. He was tortured, but when he was set free, he joined the partisan army of Greece named EAM...

“ Zorba The Greek ” - smith-d-c

53.

Anton Karas

Soundtrack, xXx

Anton Karas was a mere entertainer in an Heurige (Viennese Wine Bar), but Carol Reed selected him as the musical director of "The Third Man" (1949). He was invited to London and lived with Reed. Reed treated him very well, but Karas was in a slump - then suddenly Reed rushed into Karas' room, and lay at full length on the floor...

“ The Third Man ” - smith-d-c

54.

Jack Nitzsche

Soundtrack, Death Proof

“ One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest ” - smith-d-c

55.

John Ottman

Composer, X2

John Ottman holds dual distinctions as a leading film composer and an award winning film editor. Ottman has often completed both monumental tasks on the same films. Such remarkable double duties have included The Usual Suspects, X-Men 2, Superman Returns, Valkyrie, and Jack the Giant Killer. He has also held producer roles on several of these films...

“ The Usual Suspects ” - smith-d-c

56.

Randy Edelman

Music Department, 27 Dresses

“ Dragonheart ” - smith-d-c

57.

Rachel Portman

Composer, Chocolat

“ The Cider House Rules ” - smith-d-c

58.

Clint Mansell

Composer, Black Swan

“ Requiem for a Dream ” - smith-d-c

59.

Patrick Doyle

Actor, Brave

Patrick Doyle is a classically trained composer. His first film score, the acclaimed adaptation of "Henry V" with Kenneth Branagh for Renaissance films was scored in 1989. He has subsequently worked with Kenneth Branagh, a long time collaborator on numerous pictures including "Dead Again", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Frankenstein" and "Hamlet"...

“ Henry V ” - smith-d-c

60.

John Debney

Composer, Sin City

Academy award nominated John Debney is considered one of the most sought after composers in Hollywood. His unique ability to create memorable work across a variety of genres, as well as his reputation for being remarkably collaborative, have made him the first choice of top level producers and directors...

“ The Passion of the Christ ” - smith-d-c

61.

Georges Auric

Composer, Roman Holiday

At the least George Auric was a fine musician, having been a child prodigy, but he was much more in the musical world. He studied under Vincent D'Indy (a devotee of Cesar Franck and the German school of symphonic composition) and attended the Paris Conservatory (1920). By the time he was 20 he had orchestrated and written incidental music for ballets and the stage...

“ Beauty and the Beast (1946) ” - smith-d-c

62.

Alan Menken

Music Department, Aladdin

“ Beauty and the Beast ” - smith-d-c

63.

George Fenton

Music Department, Gandhi

“ Groundhog Day ” - smith-d-c

64.

Georges Delerue

Composer, Platoon

“ A Little Romance ” - smith-d-c

65.

Philip Glass

Soundtrack, The Truman Show

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Glass worked in his father's radio store and discovered music listening to the offbeat Western classical records customers didn't seem to want. He studied the violin and flute, and obtained early admission to the University of Chicago. After graduating in mathematics and philosophy...

“ The Illusionist ” - smith-d-c

66.

Jerry Fielding

Composer, The Bad News Bears

A three-time Oscar nominee, Jerry Fielding was among the boldest and most experimental of all Hollywood film composers. His music typically utilized advanced compositional procedures, producing dense, often richly dissonant orchestral textures, sometimes flavored with jazz. Fielding's film music career was marked by enduring and rewarding collaborations with Sam Peckinpah...

“ The Wild Bunch ” - smith-d-c

67.

Mark Mancina

Composer, Training Day

Known for his wide-ranging talents, Mark Mancina's film scores traverse almost every genre: drama, action, comedy, suspense, and period epic. His dark, edgy music for the Oscar-winning Training Day, is a benchmark score that expanded the boundaries of scoring street-wise drama, and is widely used as a temp track...

“ Speed ” - smith-d-c

68.

Quincy Jones

Music Department, The Wiz

Considered to be one of the greatest minds in music and television history, Quincy Delight Jones Jr was born on March 14, 1933 in Chicago,Illinois United States. Quincy Delight Jones Jr was born to carpenter, Quincy Delight Jones Sr, and bank executive Sarah Frances. Quincy Jones found his love for...

“ The Color Purple ” - smith-d-c

69.

Angelo Badalamenti

Music Department, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me

“ Muholland Drive ” - smith-d-c

70.

Klaus Badelt

Music Department, Gladiator

It has been a few years since Klaus' large-scale score to Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl defined the franchise and brought him worldwide mass attention. Since then, Klaus continues to write for major motion pictures with top-names like Wolfgang Petersen, Michael Mann, Richard Donner, Francis Lawrence and Harvey Weinstein...

“ Pirates of The Caribbean: The Curse of The Black Pearl ” - smith-d-c

71.

Bronislau Kaper

Composer, Mutiny on the Bounty

Born: February 5, 1902 in Warsaw, Poland Died: April 25, 1983 in Los Angeles, California, USA Kaper displayed musical talent as early as the age of seven when his family acquired a piano. His inclination to music led him to study both piano and composition, while also taking courses in law to satisfy his father...

“ Mutiny on the Bounty ” - smith-d-c

72.

Michel Legrand

Composer, Never Say Never Again

Michel Legrand is a three times Academy Award-winning French composer, conductor and pianist who composed over 200 film and television scores as well as recorded over a hundred albums of jazz, popular and classical music. He was born on February 24, 1932, in Becon-les-Bruyeres, in the Paris suburbs...

“ The Thomas Crown Affair ” - smith-d-c

73.

John Carpenter

Writer, Halloween

John Carpenter was born in Carthage, New York. His family moved to Bowling Green, Kentucky, where his father was the head of the music department at Western Kentucky University. He attended Western Kentucky University and then USC film school in Los Angeles, not the University of South Carolina. While there...

“ Halloween ” - smith-d-c

74.

Harold Faltermeyer

Soundtrack, Top Gun

“ Beverly Hills Cop ” - smith-d-c

75.

Eric Serra

Music Department, The Fifth Element

Eric Serra was born on September 9th, 1959 near Paris in France. His mother died when he was only 7 years old. His father, Claude Serra was a well-know songwriter in France in late 50s and 60s. Serra began to learn play the guitar at 11 years old and became a professional musician for Mory Kante;, Didier Lockwood and Michel Murty at 15 years old...

“ La Femme Nikita ” - smith-d-c

76.

Graeme Revell

Composer, Sin City

Graeme Revell was born in New Zealand in 1955. He was graduated from The University of Auckland with degrees in economics and politics. He is a classically trained pianist and French horn player. Revell worked for as a regional planner in Australia and Indonesia and as an orderly in an Australian psychiatric hospital...

“ The Crow ” - smith-d-c

77.

David Newman

Composer, Ice Age

“ Galaxy Quest ” - smith-d-c

78.

Marco Beltrami

Composer, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines

“ 3:10 to Yuma ” - smith-d-c

79.

Trevor Jones

Composer, Notting Hill

As a child in Cape Town, Trevor Jones lived opposite the Gem Cinema. The theater was so old and worn out that there was often a loss of the soundtrack, which caused him to realize its power. The fact that everyone in his family worked in film or the theater made it easy to get support in his career choice...

“ The Dark Crystal ” - smith-d-c

80.

Harry Gregson-Williams

Composer, Shrek

“ Shrek ” - smith-d-c

81.

Christopher Young

Composer, Spider-Man 3

“ Species ” - smith-d-c

82.

John Powell

Composer, Rio

“ The Bourne Identity ” - smith-d-c

83.

Clint Eastwood

Actor, Gran Torino

Perhaps the icon of macho movie stars, Clint Eastwood has become a standard in international cinema. Born in San Francisco, he is the son of Clinton Eastwood, Sr., a factory worker, and Ruth Wood (née Runner). The family frequently moved around Northern California when Clint was growing up before settling in Oregon...

“ Unforgiven ” - smith-d-c

84.

Peter Gabriel

Soundtrack, WALL·E

Peter Gabriel was educated at Charterhouse School, Surrey, England. He was the lead singer of leading art rock band Genesis from its inception until he left in 1975 for a successful solo career as a singer-songwriter, soundtrack composer and innovator in visual presentation of music, music videos and digital methods of recording and distributing music...

“ The Last Temptation of Christ ” - smith-d-c

85.

Tangerine Dream

Composer, Legend

“ Risky Business ” - smith-d-c

86.

Jan A.P. Kaczmarek

Composer, Finding Neverland

Jan A. P. Kaczmarek is a composer with a tremendous international reputation that continues to grow. As a successful recording artist and touring musician, Jan turned to composing film scores as his primary occupation. Jan's first success in the United States came in theater. After composing striking scores for productions at Chicago's Goodman Theatre and Los Angeles' Mark Taper Forum...

“ Finding Neverland ” - smith-d-c

87.

Alexandre Desplat

Composer, The King's Speech

“ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows ” - smith-d-c

88.

Nicholas Hooper

Composer, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

“ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix ” - smith-d-c

89.

Richard Robbins

Composer, The Remains of the Day

“ The Remains of the Day ” - smith-d-c

90.

Johnny Mandel

Music Department, MASH

“ M.A.S.H. ” - smith-d-c

91.

Carmine Coppola

Composer, The Godfather: Part III

Composer, conductor, arranger and flutist, educated at the Manhattan School of Music (BA, MA) and Juilliard (on scholarship) (MM). He was first flutist for Radio City Music Hall from 1934 to 1936, the Detroit Symphony from 1936 to 1941, the NBC Toscanini Orchestra from 1942 to 1948 and staff arranger for Radio City Music Hall from 1948 to 1956...

“ The Godfather Part II ” - smith-d-c

92.

Ira Newborn

Composer, Naked Gun 33 1/3: The Final Insult

“ The Naked Gun ” - smith-d-c

93.

Pino Donaggio

Composer, Carrie

Born in Venice, Italy, on October 24, 1941, into a family of musicians, Giuseppe "Pino" Donaggio began studying violin at the age of ten, first at the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory in Venice, followed by the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory in Milan. At the age of 14, he made his solo debut in a Vivaldi concert for Italian radio...

“ Body Double ” - smith-d-c

94.

Stewart Copeland

Composer, Wall Street

“ Wide Saragasso Sea ” - smith-d-c

95.

Gabriel Yared

Composer, The Talented Mr. Ripley

Gabriel Yared stopped his law studies at the age of 20 to work as a professional music composer. He studied with Henri Dutilleux and Maurice Ohana. He worked as a composer, orchestrator or producer for such singers as Françoise Hardy, Charles Aznavour, Gilbert Bécaud and Mireille Mathieu. He made his film debut in 1980 with the score for Jean-Luc Godard's Every Man for Himself...

“ The English Patient ” - smith-d-c

96.

Duke Ellington

Soundtrack, The Matrix

Composer ("It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing", "Sophisticated Lady", "Mood Indigo", "Solitude", "In a Mellotone", "Satin Doll"), pianist and conductor, holder of an honorary music degree from Wilberforce University and an LHD from Milton College, Duke Ellington led his own orchestra by 1918...

“ Anatomy of a Murder ” - smith-d-c

97.

Roger Edens

Soundtrack, Funny Face

“ Meet Me in St. Louis ” - smith-d-c

98.

Richard M. Sherman

Soundtrack, Iron Man 2

Richard Morton Sherman was born in the spring of 1928 in New York City to Rosa and Al Sherman. Together with his older brother, Robert B. Sherman, "The Sherman Brothers" would follow in their songwriting father's footsteps to form one of the most prolific, lauded and long lasting songwriting partnerships of all time...

“ and his brother Robert Sherman

Mary Poppins ” - smith-d-c

99.

Carl W. Stalling

Composer, Duck Amuck

Carl Stalling is the most famous unknown composer of the 20th century, almost solely based on his work composing musical scores for animated cartoons. Stalling's first work in music was as house organist in Newman Theatre in Kansas City, where he would accompany the latest silent film with his organ playing...

“ All the early Bugs Bunny Cartoons (genius) ” - smith-d-c

100.

Brad Fiedel

Music Department, True Lies

Extremely talented, prolific and versatile composer Brad Fiedel was born on March 10, 1951 in New York City. His mother was a dancer and his father was a composer and musician. Brad started out as a keyboardist for Hall & Oates. Fiedel first began composing music for movies in the mid-70s for such low-budget pictures as The Astrologer...

“ The Terminator ” - smith-d-c

Andersen, Martin Stig. “Electroacoustic Sound and Audiovisual Structure in Film.” eContact! 12.4 — Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work / Perspectives sur l’œuvre électroacoustique (August 2010). Montréal: CEC.

Dorschel, Andreas (ed.). Tonspuren. Musik im Film: Fallstudien 1994 - 2001. Universal Edition, Vienna - London - New York 2005 (Studien zur Wertungsforschung 46). ISBN 3-7024-2885-2. Scrutinizes film score practice at the turn from the 20th to 21st century. In German.

Elal, Sammy and Kristian Dupont (Eds.). “The Essentials of Scoring Film.” Minimum Noise. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Various contributors [wiki]. “Films with Significant Electroacoustic Content.” eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (September 2006). Montréal: CEC.

[edit]External links

Film music organizations

Film Music Society

International Film Music Critics Association

Film music review sites

Cinemusic (cinemusic.net)

MusicWeb International: Film Music on the Web (site closed in December 2006 and remains for archive purposes only)

Filmmusicsite (filmmusicsite.com)

MainTitles (maintitles.net)

Movie Music UK (moviemusicuk.us)

Movie Wave (movie-wave.net)

ScoreNotes (scorenotes.com)

Journals (online and print)

Film Music Magazine

Film Music Review

The Journal of Film Music

(French) UnderScores : le magazine de la musique de film

Film Composing for Robots

Writing a good home page for a film composer is almost as hard as writing a film score. The problem is that a site which offers the services of an individual composer can hardly rank well for relevancy against the topic of film composition as a whole. This is probably as it should be, because one thing a search engine cannot yet do is rate the quality of a film composer's work and services, only the quality of the site and the relevancy to the search query. It cannot distinguish between the search for information about the general topic of composition for film & TV and that of a producer or director on the hunt for an appropriately skilled and priced composer for their production. Hence there is no real merit in appearing first on the list as a film composer. Furthermore search engines have a tendency to be geographical, which also weighs heavily against the film composer, since the nature of the work requires no proximity to specific location or even the production itself.

About Mark Slater

MARK SLATER is an award winning California and London based BRITISH FILM MUSIC COMPOSER and composer for TV, commercials and advertising. Slater has working relationships with the London Symphony Orchestra, Abbey Road and Skywalker Sound. His most recent commission for Interstellar Studios and PBS saw him collaborating again with the LSO creating a score for the Documentary 400 Years of the Telescope shot in 4k Digital Cinema and an official project of 2009’s International Year of Astronomy. In 2007, Mark was commissioned by acclaimed online ad agency TRIBAL DDB as the composer of the PHILIPS AUREA soundtrack which was recorded at ABBEY ROAD STUDIOS, conducted by Mark Slater, with key members of the LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA and other top session players. Mark Slater is credited alongside Film Director WONG KAR WAI who directed the short film for the site, “There’s Only One Sun” and Production Company ANONYMOUS CONTENT. Mark is a conductor, pianist and cellist. He studied at the LONDON COLLEGE OF MUSIC and EALING FILM STUDIOS with NICK INGMAN and RODNEY NEWTON. Mark Slater is the composer on the animated feature film FLATLAND THE FILM and has scored numerous other films, shorts and documentaries. His composition skills also extend creating music for VIRAL VIDEO campaigns online and developing loops for interactive content which can include games. Mainly a composer of orchestral music, Mark Slater has composed many works for concert hall and theatre. This site contains links to examples of his music, credits, testimonials, biography and how to contact him. Further relevant information is listed in the IMDB, Internet Movie Database and WIKIPEDIA.

Mark Slater on the Web :: External Links

400 Years of the Telescope | WEST STREET RECORDING STUDIOS | PHILIPS AUREA | FLATLAND THE FILM | MARK SLATER - Sibelius | California Film Industry | MARK SLATER MySpace.Com | Yahoo Music Artists - Composers | SETI Podcast | last.fm | Duncan’s TV Ad Land - Philips Aurea Review | Soundtrack.Net | mFiles | Film Music Magazine | Royalty Free Music | Productions requiring music | Music industry contacts | Composersnewpencil.com - all about music composition | Music & Sound Design | Sisqo Music | Mark Slater on Twitter | Music in tutorials | Website design for small business | Música y Cine Film Music Magazine | Scoping Out Astronomy | Philips Aurea - Criterion | Are we alone? Cosmos Portal